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      assignment寫作范文:Equine Nutrition: The Effect of Nutrition on the Production of Young Stock

      論文價格: 免費 時間:2021-12-08 09:25:58 來源:www.ourpropertyvalue.com 作者:留學作業網

      如何寫assignment?本文范例題目是“Equine Nutrition: The Effect of Nutrition on the Production of Young Stock馬營養:營養對幼畜生產的影響”,馬駒生命的開始強烈地決定了生產的結果。為了成功生產小馬駒或幼畜,了解小馬駒的需求是很重要的。

      Introduction

      The start of a foal’s life strongly determines the produced outcome. In order to achieve successful foal or young stock production, it is important that we understand the needs of the foal.

      Genetics, environment and nutrition are 3 of the most important factors in determining their individual growth patterns.

      遺傳、環境和營養是決定個體生長模式的3個最重要的因素。

      Through knowledgeable breeding we can to a point, control the genetic make up of the foal. What a mare lacks we can find perhaps in the sire and vice versa. We can also use genetics to compliment and accentuate each other, hoping to make the desired horse. This genetic potential as it is called, is inherited from the sire and the dam and it mainly relates to the overall shape of the lifetime growth pattern and the mature size of the animal.

      通過有知識的育種,我們可以在一定程度上控制馬駒的基因組成。也許我們可以從父系中發現母馬所缺乏的,反之亦然。我們也可以利用遺傳學來贊美和強調彼此,希望能制造出理想的馬。這種遺傳潛力是由父系和母系遺傳而來的,主要與動物一生生長模式的整體形態和成熟體型有關。

      Through a safe and healthy environment, we can control the mare’s 340-day gestation period ensuring that the mare can deliver a healthy young foal. She won’t need specialized prenatal care for the first 8 months, but the attention she will need for the last 3 months of gestation are critical to both her health and that of her foal. It is very important at this point to give her the best possible health, welfare and nutrition, including vaccinations and parasite control that we can.

      With the correct understanding of nutrition of the young stock, we can control its growth and development. Their nutritional start has a substantial effect on their health and conformation into their maturer years. 

      Growth Rates in Young Stock

      The optimal growth rate we aspire to achieve should result in a desirable body size at a target age. We also need to be able to accomplish this without compromising the foal and without creating developmental issues.

      我們期望達到的最佳生長速度應該在目標年齡達到理想的體型。我們還需要能夠在不損害馬駒和不產生發育問題的情況下實現這一目標。

      This is usually driven by the commercial endpoint and indeed, does not affect certain markets as much. However, in order to accomplish this, we need to understand what the intended horse is and for a particular purpose. Foals that are produced to be sold as weanlings, need to look big and strong to achieve good prices. Foals produced to be sold as yearlings however aren’t put under the same pressures.

      這通常是由商業終端驅動的,實際上,對某些市場的影響并不大。然而,為了實現這一點,我們需要了解預定的馬是什么,并有特定的用途。生產出來作為斷奶飼料出售的馬駒,需要看起來又大又壯才能賣個好價錢。然而,在一歲時被生產出來出售的馬駒卻不會受到同樣的壓力。

      Our main aims should be to achieve a steady weight growth rate, avoid sudden growth spurts and prevent excessive weight gain. Their growth should maintain an even and upward curve up until maturity usually at five years of age. This will help to avoid sudden growth spurts that can then put extra pressure on their joints, leading to poor conformation or soundness. Forced growth and an oversupply of carbohydrates will jeopardise the foal’s health and can be harmful to their physical development. Equally a sudden decrease in energy or protein intake can also contribute to DOD’s.  This can often happen at the early weaning stage when the foal is suddenly deprived of the mare’s milk.

      Weigh tapes and scales can be used to observe the progress of the foal and a developmental chart should be kept, noting the intended and average developmental gain for a foal of its age and type. Body weight, wither height, body length, and cannon circumference are some of the more commonly used measures of growth for horses. Each of these measures have a different pattern of growth, based on the types of tissues within that part of the body and the nutrients being supplied.

      如何寫assignment

      Fig.2. Growth Chart

      Feed Stuffs for Foals & Young Stock馬駒及幼畜飼料

      As are the last 3 months of the foal’s gestation the most impactful on growth in the womb so too are the first 2 years of their life. A healthy foal can grow up to 90% or more of its full adult size in these starting years, putting on as many as 3lbs per day.

      馬駒懷孕的最后3個月對子宮內的發育影響最大,出生后的前2年也是如此。一個健康的馬駒可以成長到90%或更多的成年大小,在這些開始的幾年,增加多達3磅每天。

      Correct feeding and balanced nutrition therefore are essential for their growth.  Mare’s milk is the most important nutritional resource for foals during the ?rst months. For the first 36 hours it will provide the anti-body rich colostrum that helps protect it from disease and after that the huge volume of calories, fats and protein needed for their rapid growth.

      Proper nutrition of the mare during gestation, will ensure that you have given her vital minerals such as iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium and vitamins A and E to pass onto the foal through lactation without depleting her of her own sources. Without these being available to the foal, it may succumb to bone developmental disorders.

      A healthy well-conditioned mare will produce optimum protein, fat and sugar levels in milk thus encouraging correct growth rates of the foal. Higher amounts of fat will be produced by overweight mares, compromising the level of proteins. And on the other hand, and underweight mare will compromise both the fat and protein levels of milk which will affects the growth rate of foals.

      Fig.3. Nutritional Composition of a mare’s milk

      After approximately 3 months of lactation, the mare’s milk is no longer adequate to meet the foal’s nutritional requirements and the it’s digestive system slowly loses the ability to be able to digest the milk as effectively. From the early on, the foal will show curiosity in hard feed and it is a good idea to introduce foal pellets. Its natural curiosity will encourage it to nibble and taste small amounts of feed this will slowly develop the hind gut and the youngster learns to eat concentrate feeds.

      Foal pellets and other high-quality grains and forage that are added to the foal’s diet can be used to achieve quicker weight gain. It is essential the ration be properly balanced with vitamins and minerals. Deficits, excesses or imbalances of calcium, phosphorous, copper, zinc, selenium and vitamin E are of particular concern in the growing foal. Improper amounts or ratios can lead to skeletal problems.

      As a rule of thumb, a foal should be fed 1% of its body weight per day.

      Weaning

      At approximately 6 to 8 months the foals are generally weaned from their mothers, at this stage they weigh about 250kg and will be eating between 2-3% of its body weight in feed i.e. 2.5 kg a day.

      在大約6至8個月時,馬駒一般從母駒斷奶,在這一階段,馬駒重約250公斤,攝食占其體重2-3%的飼料,即每天2.5公斤。

      As weaning can be a time of increased stress, the foal can lose considerable weight. Environmental stresses, sudden weight losses and rapid weight gains can all contribute to DOD’s. Therefore, it is important to observe its body condition and eating habits before you address weaning and be confident that they are eating well before you proceed.

      The quantity of protein enriched grain may need to be increased at this stage to make up for the loss of mare’s milk.

      From weaning to 2 years old a horse will continue to grow at an incredible rate. They will continue to build muscle and bone rapidly therefore a high protein diet is necessary. At this stage they will need a diet containing 14-16% protein as well as high energy rations to be able to meet the demand for growth and activity.

      A rule of thumb is to provide 60-70 % of the ration as concentrates and 30-40 % of the ration as roughage – measured by weight. The diet must also provide sufficient fibre to keep the digestive tract moving effectively to avoid any build up that could lead to gut pain and possibly colicing.

      Feed merchants such as Red Mills and Gain produce complete feeds which contain a balanced ration suitable for foals and yearlings. They are purposely formulated to meet the requirements of growing young stock.

      RED MILLS – Foal & Yearling Cooked Mix

      RED MILLS – Foal Pellets

      Formulated for foals and yearlings to encourage sound growth and development. Concentrated feed with high protein levels for excellent muscle development. Fully balanced for vitamins and minerals for sound bone development. Range of cooked cereals for palatability and digestion.

      Protein18.0%Oil6.3%Fibre7.0%Ash8.5%Moisture (Max)14.0%Copper84mg/kgVitamin A16,500iu/kgVitamin D32,800iu/kgVitamin E (alpha tocopherol)280iu/kgCalcium1.20%

      Formulated for foals to encourage sound growth and development. Fully balanced for vitamins and minerals for sound bone development. Highly palatable formula. Promotes topline and condition in the young horse

      Protein20.0%Oil3.80%Fibre11.5%Ash7.50%Moisture (Max)14.0%Copper60mg/kgVitamin A12,000iu/kgVitamin D32,000iu/kgVitamin E (alpha tocopherol)200iu/kgCalcium1.10%

      Factors that Affect Bone development

      Thoroughbreds and other light breeds will achieve 84% of their mature height at the age of 6 months old. Therefore, a weaning intending to achieve 16 hands, will approximately stand at 13,2” by this stage. At 12 months it will approximately be 15 hands achieving 94% of its adult height and by 22 months it will have almost reached 97% of its full height standing at 15,2”. This rapid growth succession demands huge growth efforts on behalf of the skeletal make-up of the horse.

      Bone is a dynamic tissue always adapting to change in its nutritional and physical environment. Within the bone, there a many different compositions. The area mainly responsible for growth is the physes or the growth plates. They allow for the longitudinal extension of the bone enabling the horse to grow vertically and achieve its optimum height and form his structural conformation. This process is called ossification. In the growing foal, the diaphysis and epiphyses are centers of ossification. It is here where soft cartilage cells are transformed into hard bone cells thus growing the bone.

      assignment范文參考

      Fig.4. Bone Growth in the Maturing Horse

      The strength of bone is derived from a mineralized cartilage framework. It responds to changes in the amounts of essential vitamins and minerals in the horse’s diet. Calcium and phosphorus comprise of 70% of the mineral content of bone while magnesium, copper, zinc manganese, vitamins A and D and other nutrients make up the rest.

      Feeding the brood mare particularly in the last trimester with a balanced diet will ensure that the foal receives all the adequate nutrients and minerals for good health, a strong skeletal make-up and a healthy immune system. It is also important to make sure the quality of milk produced is good enough to feed the foal in the first few months.

      Following on from that feeding the foal with a balanced ration and good quality forage they will attain all the essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals that they need to help promote good bone and hoof growth.

      Exercise is also imperative to the development of bone. Providing a foal with regular turn out and exercise will assist in the laying down of periosteal bone in the cannon bones and other long bones and ensure future resilience and durability. Light exercise will train the skeletal tissues including ligaments, tendons and muscles to accept weight bearing forces imperative to healthy development of the skeletal system and bone conformation.

      Once in training, the appropriate level of exercise should stimulate bone tissue, improve skeletal strength, and, in theory, reduce the probability of exercise-associated skeletal injuries. However, as bone is a dynamic tissue, long breaks from training can decrease bone mass and strength and leave the skeletal system vulnerable to DOD’s.

      A horse will not achieve its maximum bone mineral content (BMC) until it is 6 years old. Therefore, it is vital that we take the necessary steps to healthy bone formation to avoid DOD’s and injuries.  We need to provide a balanced feed and a suitable exercise regime which will ensure good strength and resilience of bone to withstand the activity level it is required for.

      馬直到6歲時才會達到其最大的骨礦物質含量(BMC)。因此,我們必須采取必要的措施,以健康的骨形成,以避免DOD和損傷。我們需要提供平衡的飼料和適當的運動機制,以確保骨骼具有良好的強度和彈性,以承受所需的活動水平。

      Nutrition營養

      Nutrition plays a vital role in the healthy composition of bones and joints. It can have a huge impact on the musculoskeletal health, disease prevention and the future performance of horses. The growing foal passes through three important nutritional phases: nursing, creep feeding, and weaning. Nursing is completely dependent on the dam’s milk and should meet all the foal's nutritional needs until he reaches approximately two months of age. As this quality and quantity wane, creep feeding is needed to supplement the nutrients that may no longer be available in the desired amounts. At this stage, creep feed should contain approximately 14-16% crude protein, 0.7-0.9% calcium, 0.5-0.6% phosphorus, 50-90 ppm (parts per million) copper, and 120-240 ppm zinc.[1]

      營養對骨骼和關節的健康組成起著至關重要的作用。它對馬的肌肉骨骼健康、疾病預防和未來的表現都有巨大的影響。生長中的馬駒要經歷三個重要的營養階段:哺乳、蠕食和斷奶。哺乳完全依賴于母馬的奶,在馬駒長到大約兩個月大之前,要滿足馬駒的所有營養需求。隨著這種質量和數量的減少,需要蠕變飼養來補充可能無法滿足所需數量的營養物質。在這一階段,蠕變飼料應含有約14-16%的粗蛋白質、0.7-0.9%的鈣、0.5-0.6%的磷、50- 90ppm的銅和120- 240ppm的鋅

      Weaning then must provide all the nutrients the growing horse needs through good quality forage and concentrate feeds. Concentrates should be directly formulated for the growing horse and should contain approximately 14-16% crude protein, 0.8% calcium, 0.5% phosphorus, 50-80 ppm copper, and 100-200 ppm zinc.[2]

      As necessary as it is for foals to receive all the nutrients required by the rapid growing body so too must they receive them in adequate amounts. The ratios of certain nutrients can have a knock-on effect on others therefore they must receive the proper ratios between nutrients to ensure successful bone development.

      Water

      Water is a vital nutrient and without it a horse could colic, dehydrate, and even die. Horses’ water requirements depend greatly on their physiologic state – a foal will consume most of its water whilst suckling from the nursing mare, however, whilst a weanling must learn to drink from the available fresh water supplies. 

      Calcium

      While calcium is imperative to bone growth, excess calcium in the diet can inhibit the absorption of phosphorus in the body. So, while a diet might appear to have an adequate amount of phosphorus, it may not be fully available if the calcium levels are too high. Imbalances in phosphorous whether they are excessive or deficient can lead to osteochondrosis, a DOD that affects the cartilage formation in bone.

      The correct ratio a foal should receive of calcium and phosphorus is 2:1.

      Calcium should make up .8% of a weanling’s dry matter intake, and .5% of a yearling’s dry matter intake. Phosphorus should make up .5% of a weanling’s dry matter and .3% of a yearling’s dry matter.

      Other nutrient imbalances of zinc, iodine, and copper can also be problematic during growth phases in foals.

      Copper

      Copper is needed for bone collagen and elastin synthesis. It should be readily available through feed however because it is a mineral that can be stored in the liver it is vital that the mare receives adequate supplies of it during gestation so some can be passed onto the foal prior to birth. As it is vital for bone formation, inadequate supplies can also to osteochondrosis and other DOD’s.

      As calcium can inhibit the uptake of phosphorous so to can zinc inhibit copper however sufficient supplies of zinc are still necessary for enzyme functions.

      Developmental Orthopaedic Diseases發育性骨科疾病

      Developmental orthopedic disease (DOD) is a term used to describe all musculoskeletal problems in growing horses. They are usually caused when ossification or when cartilage fails to mature and develop into bone leaving the system compromised and susceptible to issues.

      發育性骨科疾病(DOD)是一個術語,用來描述生長中的馬的所有肌肉骨骼問題。它們通常是由于骨化或當軟骨未能成熟和發展成骨骼,使系統受損和易受問題的影響。

      DOD’s can be caused by several different environmental or management factors; trauma, rapid growth, imbalanced nutrition and stress on the musculoskeletal system caused by inappropriate exercise or obesity can all aid the development of orthopedic diseases. We may also have to consider the breeding or genetic makeup of the horse. Clinical signs of DOD’s may include pain, stiffness or lack of suppleness in gait, lameness, and or decreased mobility of the animal.

      Developmental orthopedic disease can occur anytime between birth and 1? years of age. They include physitis, osteochondritis dissecans, subchondral bone cysts and flexural limb deformities.

      Physitis or Epiphysitis

      Inflammation of growth plates at the ends of the long bones. This can cause lameness in an animal and show up as an inflamed region between two bones.

      Osteochondrosis (OCD)

      A cartilage disorder characterized by the presence of large flaps of cartilage or loose cartilaginous bodies within a joint. This can later progress to osteochondritis dissecans (OCD).

      Subchondral Bone Cysts

      Saclike cavities in bone beneath the cartilage surface that are filled with fluid or soft material.

      Flexural Limb Deformities

      Caused when the functional length of the tendon is not sufficient to maintain the limb in its normal extension i.e. contracted tendons. They can be congenital i.e. develop in the womb or developmental due to incorrect exercise. Box rest, splinting to support the limbs and even surgery may be needed depending on the severity of the condition.

      Angular Limb Deformities (ALD)

      Visually a more obvious DOD to the eye. This is where the limbs deviate from the normal weight-bearing axis. They can be congenital also or developmental due to over feeding and putting the unossified bone under too much pressure and causing it to malform.

      Cervical Vertebral Malformation

      A compression of the spinal cord or an instability caused due to incorrect growth. This can lead to neurological reactions which we refer to as “wobbler’s”.

      Healthy hoof growth and horn production

      Hoof quality is determined by several factors including genetics, environment, and nutrition.

      Some horses inherit weak hooves, and that can’t be changed. But proper care and nutrition can help a horse develop and maintain the best hooves genetically possible.

      Several nutrients can influence hoof growth and quality. A well-balanced diet will typically contain the nutritional elements needed for optimal hoof growth.

      Some key nutrients which can impact hoof health include:

      Protein

      The hoof structure is primarily made of keratin, a protein. Proteins are made of amino acids and are necessary for healthy hooves and growth. Methionine, an essential amino acid, is thought to be important for hoof quality. However, balance is key; if fed in excess, methionine is also believed to cause a depletion of iron, copper, and zinc. This can lead to crumbling horn and white line disease.

      馬蹄的結構主要由角蛋白組成,角蛋白是一種蛋白質。蛋白質由氨基酸組成,對健康的蹄和生長是必需的。蛋氨酸,一種必需的氨基酸,被認為是重要的蹄品質。然而,平衡是關鍵;如果攝入過量,蛋氨酸還被認為會導致鐵、銅和鋅的損耗。這可能導致角斑駁和白線病。

      Fat

      A diet with adequate levels of fat can be beneficial to the hoof, as fats can create a permeability barrier which can help prevent bacteria and fungi from entering the hoof horn.

      Zinc

      Zinc is necessary for normal keratinization of the hoof.

      Calcium and phosphorous

      Calcium is essential for proper cell attachment in the hoof horn and wall. However, ensure you’re feeding your horse the correct ratio of calcium and phosphorous. Excess phosphorous can block the absorption of calcium, leading to weak and abnormal bones.

      Selenium and vitamin E

      Selenium and vitamin E are important antioxidants protecting cell membranes. However, the balance of intake is crucial because selenium toxicity can cause hair loss, coronitis, and coronary band bleeding, as well as sloughing of the hoof and laminitis.

      Biotin

      Perhaps the most researched vitamin for hoof growth, biotin is thought to help with hoof integrity as well as coat, mane, and tail growth.

      Examples of Supplements to promote healthy hoof growth

      Biotin is the most critical vitamin in the process of hoof growth and formation. It is a member of the B vitamin family and is water soluble. Regular supplementation is encouraged if the horse has poor hoof quality.

      Farrier's Formula is a pelleted hoof supplement that can be added as a top dressing on the regular feed or given separately. It provides nutrients such as phospholipids, omega fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and important amino acid “protein building blocks”. These nutrients enable horses to build strong connective tissue proteins important for healthy hoof structure and growth.

      Conclusion

      There isn’t a “one diet that cures all” when it comes to developmental orthopaedic disease. Feeding the pregnant mare properly, then continuing that well managed feeding for each individual is the best way to try avoid DOD. Giving the young stock a well-balanced diet and sufficient exercise will definitely help in promoting good bone formation, regular farrier visits will also promote good hooves and hopefully prevent any issues that could arise in the future.

      就發育性骨科疾病而言,并沒有“一種飲食可以包治百病”。給懷孕的母馬適當的喂食,然后繼續給每只母馬喂食,這是避免DOD的最好方法。給幼馬一個均衡的飲食和足夠的鍛煉肯定會有助于促進良好的骨形成,定期拜訪蹄鐵匠也會促進良好的蹄,希望能防止未來可能出現的任何問題。

      List of Illustrations

      Fig.1. Thoroughbred Foal

      https://i.pinimg.com/originals/9f/30/a5/9f30a517ef49a8a7308774456fa0e6a6.jpg

      Fig.2. Growth Chart

      https://veteriankey.com/feeding-the-growing-horse/

      Fig.3. Nutritional Composition of a mare’s milk

      https://www.researchgate.net/publication/223016024_Protein_and_fat_composition_of_mare's_milk_Some_nutritional_remarks_with_reference_to_human_and_cow's_milk

      Fig.4. Bone Growth in the Maturing Horse

      https://www.farmstable.com/blog/more-about-bone-development-in-horses/

      Bibliography

      • https://www.lifedatalabs.com/products/equine-hoof-coat-supplements/farriers-formula

      • https://www.horsehealth.co.uk/images/HH_0214_041.jpg

      • https://thehorse.com/137437/hoof-supplements/

      • https://thehorse.com/19448/horse-hoof-health-and-nutrition-balance-is-key/

      • https://thehorse.com/125043/feeding-to-avoid-developmental-orthopedic-disease-dod/

      • https://www.triequestrian.ie/

      • https://veteriankey.com/feeding-the-growing-horse/

      • https://ker.com/equinews/training-and-bone-development/

      • https://veteriankey.com/feeding-the-growing-horse/

      • https://www.farmstable.com/blog/more-about-bone-development-in-horses/

      • https://thehorse.com/14874/dod-developmental-orthopedic-disorders/

      • https://thehorse.com/150700/feeding-foals/

      [1] https://thehorse.com/150700/feeding-foals/

      [2] https://thehorse.com/150700/feeding-foals/

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