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      美國essay范文:The Transition from Isolationism to Intervention in America

      論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-07-29 09:56:32 來源:www.ourpropertyvalue.com 作者:留學作業網

      美國essay范文-美國從孤立主義到干預的轉變。本文是一篇美國留學生essay寫作范文,主要內容是講述由于一戰的可怕經歷和后果,大約90%的美國人支持關于美國卷入另一場戰爭的孤立主義。繼續努力保持“中立”狀態,并通過干預維持世界穩定,這些選擇使美國人相互對立。富蘭克林·D·羅斯??偨y和政府在努力保持美國“中立”方面面臨許多挑戰。下面就一起來參考這篇美國essay范文。

      美國essay格式范文

      Due to the gruesome experience & aftermath of WWI, approximately 90% of Americans supported isolationism regarding U.S. involvement in another war (United States Holocaust Memorial Museum).  The continued efforts to remain in a state of “neutrality” and maintain stability in the world by intervention were choices that kept Americans in opposition with one another. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and administration faced many challenges in striving to keep America “neutral”.
       By the mid-1930’s it seemed as though a new world war was taking shape in Asia and Europe. When Benito Mussolini, leader of Italy and the Fascist Party (rejected democratic forms of government and favored dictatorship), planned to invade Ethiopia, U.S. Congress acted to “protect neutral rights” and not become entrapped in the conflict (Brinkley 613-619). On August 31, 1935, the first Neutrality Act was established. It prohibited military weapons, ammunition, etc. against both sides in any military conflict and discouraged Americans to travel (or do so at their own risk) on any ships of the nations at war. On February 29, 1936, Congress revised the first Neutrality Act and prohibited America from advancing any loans to nations at war. The Spanish Civil War in 1936 and the widespread progression of fascism in Europe led to expanding the Neutrality Act of 1937, aka the “cash-and-carry” policy, that allowed nations at war to purchase only non-military goods and do so by only paying cash and shipping their goods themselves on non-American ships. Since raw materials like oil and food were not considered “weapons of war”, it would be a prosperous venture for the nation that acquired it. Unlike the rest of the Neutrality Act of 1937, which was permanent, this part of it had an expiration date of two years (Brinkley 613-619, Longley).
      到了1930年代中期,亞洲和歐洲似乎正在形成一場新的世界大戰。當意大利和法西斯黨領導人貝尼托·墨索里尼(拒絕民主政府形式,支持獨裁)計劃入侵埃塞俄比亞時,美國國會采取了“保護中立權利”的行動,而不是陷入沖突。1935年8月31日,第一個中立法案成立。它禁止在任何軍事沖突中對雙方使用軍事武器、彈藥等,并阻止美國人乘坐戰爭國家的任何船只旅行(或自行承擔風險)。1936年2月29日,國會修訂了第一部中立法案,禁止美國向處于戰爭狀態的國家提供任何貸款。1936年的西班牙內戰和法西斯主義在歐洲的廣泛發展導致了1937年《中立法案》的擴大,即“現付現付”政策,該政策允許處于戰爭狀態的國家只購買非軍事物資,只需支付現金并將其貨品自己運送到非美國船只上即可。由于石油和食品等原材料不被視為“戰爭武器”,因此對于獲得這些原材料的國家來說,這將是一次繁榮的冒險。與1937年《中立法案》的其余部分不同,該法案是永久性的,該部分的到期日為兩年。
          WWII, already happening in Asia, began in Europe on September 3, 1939, when Britain and France declared war on Germany, two days after Hitler and the Nazi troops in Poland. Even though President Roosevelt stated, “this nation will remain a neutral nation”, he and most Americans favored Britain, France, and the Allied nations in the conflict after the invasion of Poland (Brinkley 613-619). Due to numerous defense of armies and weapons that Hitler had acquired for Germany, President Roosevelt began to weigh America’s “neutrality” against the burden to help democratic nations defend themselves against the progression of fascism like that of Germany and Italy. On November 4, 1939, Congress passed the final Neutrality Act. This act lifted the prohibition of military weapons, ammunition, etc., (ending the arms embargo) and trade with nations at war had to adhere to the “cash-and-carry” policy for the sale of non-military goods that the previous Neutrality Act of 1937 indicated. Nevertheless, the prohibition of advancing any loans and transporting goods on American ships to nations at war remained intact, which benefited Britain and France tremendously. Overall, the Neutrality Acts were a way in which America could pacify the opinions of those who supported isolationism, while still intervening and protecting America’s interests in a foreign war (Brinkley 613-619, Longley).
      1939年9月3日,在希特勒和納粹軍隊進駐波蘭兩天后,英國和法國向德國宣戰,第二次世界大戰已經在亞洲爆發。盡管羅斯??偨y表示,“這個國家將保持中立”,但他和大多數美國人在入侵波蘭后的沖突中支持英國、法國和盟國。由于希特勒為德國獲得了大量的軍隊和武器防御,羅斯??偨y開始權衡美國的“中立”與幫助民主國家抵御德國和意大利等法西斯主義發展的負擔。1939年11月4日,國會通過了最終中立法案。該法案取消了對軍事武器、彈藥等的禁令(終止了武器禁運),與戰爭國家的貿易必須遵守1937年《中立法案》規定的“現付現付”政策,以銷售非軍事物資。盡管如此,禁止美國船只向戰爭國家提供任何貸款和運輸貨物的規定仍然沒有改變,這使英國和法國受益匪淺??偟膩碚f,中立法案是一種方式,在這種方式下,美國可以安撫那些支持孤立主義的人的意見,同時仍然在對外戰爭中干預和保護美國的利益。

      Within the next year, President Roosevelt and his administration gained even more steps to oppose the progression of fascism and intervention in WWII. On May 15, 1940, a desperate Winston Churchill, who had only been Prime Minister of Britain for five days, contacted President Roosevelt requesting his assistance in supplying England with “weapons of war”. The British military was in serious trouble and more than likely without our help they would not survive. President Roosevelt did not hesitate to ask Congress for an additional $1 billion to aid England in the war and it was granted without delay. America supplied them with 50 American destroyers (WWI left-overs), new aircraft, etc., bypassing the stipulations of the Neutrality Acts. However, President Roosevelt wanted something in return for providing aid to them. He wanted the right to build American bases on British territory in the Caribbean and Canada. Thus, the “Destroyer for Bases Agreement” was reached in August that shifted from a loan to a “lease agreement” in exchange for our giving Britain “weapons of war”, America would obtain the British territory to build the American bases. This agreement had a major fluctuation in the American opinion of isolationism from foreign policy to intervention in the war against the Axis forces (Germany, Italy, Japan, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria). According to opinion polls, more than 66% of Americans believed that the Axis forces posed a threat to America and favored our assistance to the Allies (Brinkley 622). President Roosevelt firmly believed that America should be an “arsenal for democracy” to the Allied armies.
      在接下來的一年里,羅斯??偨y和他的政府采取了更多的步驟來反對法西斯主義的發展和干涉二戰。1940年5月15日,絕望的溫斯頓·丘吉爾與羅斯??偨y聯系,請求他協助向英國提供“戰爭武器”。英國軍隊陷入了嚴重的麻煩,如果沒有我們的幫助,他們很可能無法生存。羅斯??偨y毫不猶豫地要求國會追加10億美元,以援助英國參戰,并毫不拖延地獲得批準。美國繞過中立法案的規定,向他們提供了50艘美國驅逐艦(第一次世界大戰遺留下來的)、新飛機等。然而,羅斯??偨y想要一些東西作為對他們提供援助的回報。他想要在加勒比海和加拿大的英國領土上建立美國基地的權利。因此,8月份達成了“驅逐艦換基地協議”,該協議從貸款改為“租賃協議”,以換取我們給予英國“戰爭武器”,美國將獲得英國領土以建造美國基地。從外交政策到對軸心國(德國、意大利、日本、匈牙利、羅馬尼亞和保加利亞)的戰爭干預,這一協議使美國的孤立主義觀點發生了重大波動。根據民意調查,超過66%的美國人認為軸心國軍隊對美國構成威脅,并支持我們向盟國提供援助(Brinkley 622)。羅斯??偨y堅信,美國應該成為盟軍的“民主兵工廠”。
      At the end of 1940, Britain was “virtually bankrupt” and could not meet the requirements of the “cash-and-carry” provisions of the Neutrality Acts (Brinkley 622).  President Roosevelt knew some changes had to be made in how America was supplying defense aid to Britain. He proposed the “Lend-Lease Act” at the end of 1940 to Congress. The “Lend-Lease Act” authorized the American government to sell, lend, exchange, or lease arms and/or any defense “weapons of war” to any nation it “deemed vital to the defense of the United States” (Brinkley 623, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum). In other words, America could channel “weapons of war” to Britain with no more than a promise to return them when the war was over. The “Lend-Lease Act” was approved on March 11, 1941, by Congress (Brinkley 623, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum).
      1940年底,英國“幾乎破產”,無法滿足《中立法案》中“現金和攜帶”條款的要求。羅斯??偨y知道,美國向英國提供國防援助的方式必須有所改變。1940年底,他向國會提出了《租借法案》?!蹲饨璺ò浮肥跈嗝绹蚱洹罢J為對保衛美國至關重要”的任何國家出售、租借、交換或租賃武器和/或任何國防“戰爭武器”(Brinkley 623,美國大屠殺紀念館)。換句話說,美國可以將“戰爭武器”輸送給英國,而只需承諾在戰爭結束時歸還這些武器。1941年3月11日,國會批準了《租借法案》。
      On December 7, 1941, a surprise attack from Japanese bombers at our naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, which was a correlated effort to destroy and/or damage American and British holdings in Asia. America lost 8 battleships, 3 cruisers, 4 other vessels, 188 airplanes, etc. and more than 2,400 soldiers/sailors died, another 1,000 were injured, within 2 hours (Brinkley 625). The American military was now compromised and reduced to a minimum in the Pacific. The only positive note about the attack was that no American aircraft carriers (the heart of the fleet) had been at Pearl Harbor that horrific day. With that being said, this tragedy brought unity with the American people to disregard isolationism views and agreed that intervention was inevitable. On December 8, 1941, Congress voted (unanimous vote for the Senate and 388 to 1 for the House) to approve a declaration of war against Japan. On December 11, 1941, Germany and Italy (allies of Japan) declared war on America and Congress retaliated without a hesitation (Brinkley 625-626). America played a crucial role in the war against Germany and Italy. Nevertheless, the price that the Allies paid was far beyond the contributions America made to it. The numerous loss of lives, socialism, and infrastructure was disheartening compared to our tragic losses. Ultimately, it was not American forces that brought the war against Japan to a close, it was the unleashing of the atomic bomb on its’ people that finally convinced the nation to surrender (Brinkley 651). When WWII ended, America was economically better than any other country in the world. America had prospered tremendously-more than anyone could have imagined-before or during the war.
      1941年12月7日,日本轟炸機對我們位于夏威夷珍珠港的海軍基地發動了突然襲擊,這是一次聯合行動,旨在摧毀和/或破壞美國和英國在亞洲的財產。美國損失了8艘戰艦、3艘巡洋艦、4艘其他船只、188架飛機等。2小時內,2400多名士兵/水手死亡,1000人受傷。美國軍隊現在妥協了,在太平洋地區降到了最低限度。關于這次襲擊的唯一積極消息是,在那可怕的一天,沒有美國航空母艦(艦隊的核心)在珍珠港。話雖如此,這場悲劇使美國人民團結起來,無視孤立主義觀點,并同意干預是不可避免的。1941年12月8日,國會投票(參議院以388票贊成,眾議院以1票反對)批準對日宣戰。1941年12月11日,德國和意大利(日本的盟友)向美國宣戰,國會毫不猶豫地進行了報復。美國在反對德國和意大利的戰爭中發揮了關鍵作用。然而,盟國付出的代價遠遠超過了美國對它的貢獻。與我們悲慘的損失相比,無數生命、社會主義和基礎設施的損失令人沮喪。最終,并不是美國軍隊結束了對日戰爭,是原子彈對日本人民的釋放最終說服了日本投降。二戰結束時,美國的經濟狀況優于世界上任何其他國家。美國的繁榮程度超出了任何人在戰爭之前或戰爭期間的想象。
       After the death of President Roosevelt on April 12, 1945, the new president, Harry S. Truman agreed with the “inside” people of government and many Americans regarding the Soviet Union and the leadership of Josef Stalin that it was not to be trusted. They were viewed as “fundamentally untrustworthy” and “suspicious and even loathing” (Brinkley 658).  By the end of 1945, a new American foreign policy was slowly developing known as containment. This was policy was designed to prevent Soviet expansion and transpired into what is known as the Truman Doctrine. Ultimately, it decreased Soviet pressure on Turkey and help their government defeat communism and containment that survived for over 40 years. Another essential part of the containment policy was the Marshall Plan. In April 1947, Congress approved the Economic Cooperation Administration that executed the Marshall Plan. In three years, it provided aid to the economic reconstruction of the European nations (including the Soviet Union) and generated over $12 billion into the economic rebuilding of Western Europe. By the end of 1950, industrial production had grown to 64%, communism had declined, and opportunities for America to resume trading with them had increased dramatically (Brinkley 661).
      1945年4月12日,羅斯??偨y去世后,新任總統哈里·杜魯門就蘇聯和約瑟夫·斯大林的領導層與政府“內部”人士和許多美國人達成一致,認為蘇聯不值得信任。他們被視為“根本不值得信任”和“可疑甚至令人厭惡”。到1945年底,一種新的美國外交政策正在緩慢發展,被稱為遏制。這是一項旨在防止蘇聯擴張的政策,并被稱為杜魯門主義。最終,它減輕了蘇聯對土耳其的壓力,并幫助土耳其政府擊敗了共產主義和遏制主義,這種遏制主義持續了40多年。遏制政策的另一個重要部分是馬歇爾計劃。1947年4月,國會批準了執行馬歇爾計劃的經濟合作署。在三年內,它為歐洲國家(包括蘇聯)的經濟重建提供了援助,并為西歐的經濟重建創造了120多億美元。到1950年底,工業生產增長到64%,共產主義衰落,美國恢復與他們貿易的機會急劇增加。
      Although many Americans changed their opinions about isolationism to intervention regarding foreign policies, it remains a controversial topic. It has proven to have both negative and positive impacts on America and its citizens. Unfortunately, the attack on Pearl Harbor angered Americans to the point where they wanted immediate retaliation on Japan, which permanently erased isolationism from their minds. It is sad that it took such a horrific tragedy as this to sway the views/opinions from isolationism to intervention. In contrast, it is also a matter of whether it is beneficial or not favorable for America to remain “neutral”. 
      Works Cited 參考文獻
      Brinkley, Alan. “Chapter 25.” The Unfinished Nation, A Concise History of the American People. 8th ed. Vol. 2. N.p.: McGraw Hill Education, n.d. 613-619, 622-623, 625-626. Print. Ser. 2016.
      Brinkley, Alan. “Chapter 26.” The Unfinished Nation, A Concise History of the American People. 8th ed. Vol. 2. N.p.: McGraw Hill Education, n.d. 643-651. Print. Ser. 2016.
      Brinkley, Alan. “Chapter 27.” The Unfinished Nation, A Concise History of the American People. 8th ed. Vol. 2. N.p.: McGraw Hill Education, n.d. 658-665. Print. Ser. 2016.
      Longley, Robert. “US Neutrality Acts of the 1930s and the Lend-Lease Act.” ThoughtCo, Sep. 26, 2018, thoughtco.com/us-neutrality-acts-of-the-1930s-and-the-lend-lease-act-4126414.
      美國essay范文在最后提出盡管許多美國人改變了對孤立主義的看法,轉而對外交政策進行干預,但這仍是一個有爭議的話題。事實證明,它對美國及其公民既有消極影響,也有積極影響。不幸的是,對珍珠港的襲擊激怒了美國人,他們希望立即對日本進行報復,這將永久消除他們心中的孤立主義??杀氖?,這樣一場可怕的悲劇改變了人們從孤立主義到干預的觀點/觀點。相反,這也是一個美國保持“中立”是否有利的問題。本站提供各國各專業essay寫作指導服務,如有需要可咨詢本平臺。

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