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      MBA Essay格式范文:Advantages and Disadvantages of Working in a Team

      論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-08-24 10:15:42 來源:www.ourpropertyvalue.com 作者:留學作業網

      MBA Essay格式范文-在團隊中工作的優點和缺點,本文是一篇留學生MBA Essay寫作參考范例。首先作者想介紹小組和團隊合作,其次作者將概述團隊合作的一些優點和缺點,最后作者會提出一些理論來說明如何減少或避免缺點。MBA Essay中提出團隊是一群人,他們一起工作以生產產品或提供相互負責的服務。團隊工作是一種系統,其中生產被組織成大的工作單元,一群員工一起工作以實現共同的目標,一個團隊從事更大的任務團隊成員需要多 - 技能嫻熟、訓練有素且受到超過計件報酬的激勵。下面就一起來參考這篇MBA Essay的全部內容。

      MBA Essay格式范文

      Firstly I would like to do the introduction of groups and team working, secondly i will outline some advantages and disadvantages of working in teams, finally i will put some theories to show how disadvantages can be reduced or avoided.
      A team is a group of individuals who work together to produce products or deliver services for which they are mutually accountable. (Mohram, Cohen& Mohrman,1995) Team working is a system where production is organised into large units of work and a group of employees work together in order to meet shared objectives, a team of people work on lager tasksteam members will need to be multi-skilled, well trained and motivated by more than the piece-rate rewards received. (John Wolinski& Gwen Coates, 2004)

      According to Fidler's typology of work groups, he suggested groups could be classified acording to the nature and intensity of interaction necessary for task accomplishment. (Robin Fincham & Peter Rhodes, 2005) There is interacting groups, the members are interdependent, and cooperation and coordination is needed to complete the group task; there is co-acting groups, whereas members work together on a common goal but do so relatively independently; and there is counteracting groups, which individuals work together for the purpose of negotiating and reconciling conflicting demands and objectives. (Robin Fincham & Peter Rhodes, 2005)
      根據 Fidler 的工作組類型學,他建議可以根據任務完成所必需的交互的性質和強度對組進行分類。有互動的群體,成員相互依存,完成群體任務需要合作與協調; 有共同行動的團體,而成員為了一個共同的目標一起工作,但相對獨立地這樣做; 還有一些相互對抗的團體,個人為了協商和調和相互沖突的需求和目標而共同努力。
      The structure of a group reflects the basis of group identity, according to Meridith Belbin, members of a group should based on a mixture of observation,personality, and ability data. (Robin Fincham & Peter Rhodes, 2005)
      一個群體的結構反映了群體認同的基礎,根據 Meridith Belbin 的說法,一個群體的成員應該基于觀察、個性和能力數據的混合。
      Group norms is important during team working, norm is a rule which governs the behaviour of group members.(Robin Fincham & Peter Rhodes, 2005) Norms in the workplace directly related to performance by dictating acceptable levels of quality and quantity. (Robin Fincham & Peter Rhodes, 2005)It also determines attitudes toward timekeeping, absenteeism and standards of personal appearance. (Robin Fincham & Peter Rhodes, 2005) In a more general form of norms are the 4 aspect suggested by Guirdham in 1995, they are Fairness, Reciprocity, Reasonableness, and Role expectations.(Robin Fincham & Peter Rhodes, 2005)
      Synergy is where the activities of two or more components when brought together creates more value than do the activities in individuals.(Dave Hall, Rob Jones& Carlo Raffo, 2004) The common sense view of committees is that they take a great deal of time to produce poor quality decisions, however, in most conditions groups outperform even the best member in the team, this phenomenon has been termed synergy.(Robin Fincham & Peter Rhodes, 2005) The benefit of synergy is that discussion in groups generates more alternatives than individuals, it tends to eliminate inferior contributions, errors are more easily to be point out, and it supports creative thinking or there will be more creative ideas.(Robin Fincham & Peter Rhodes, 2005) There might be a negative synergy when the total group output is less than the combined individual efforts.(Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004) If a team have unequal distribution whereas one of the team member contributes more than the others, there will be tensions, conflicts, and problems between the members, and it would also effect the existed privity of team working.(Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004) There is a probability to the happening of social loafing. Social loafing where individual effort decreases as the number of members within the team increases. (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004)
      團隊規范在團隊工作中很重要,規范是管理團隊成員行為的規則。工作場所的規范通過規定可接受的質量和數量水平與績效直接相關。 它還決定了人們對計時、曠工和個人儀表標準的態度。 Guirdham 在 1995 年提出的更一般形式的規范是公平、互惠、合理和角色期望。
      協同作用是指兩個或多個組成部分的活動結合在一起創造的價值比個人活動更多。委員會的常識觀點是,他們需要大量時間來完成產生低質量的決策,然而,在大多數情況下,即使是團隊中最好的成員,團隊的表現也優于團隊中的最佳成員,這種現象被稱為協同效應。協同效應的好處是小組討論比個人產生更多的選擇, 它傾向于消除低劣的貢獻, 錯誤更容易被指出, 它支持創造性思維或會有更多的創造性想法。小于個人努力的總和。如果一個團隊分配不均,而其中一個成員的貢獻大于其他成員,就會出現緊張局勢,成員之間的沖突和問題,也會影響團隊合作的現有隱私。社會游蕩的發生是有可能的。隨著團隊成員數量的增加,個人努力減少的社交游蕩。
      Cohesiveness is the complex of forces giving rise to the perceptions by members of a group identity.(Robin Fincham & Peter Rhodes, 2005) Cohesive groups may result in greater interaction between members, group members mutually help each other, it make the members feel more belonged and trusted within the group.(Mullins, 2007) Cohesive group members are good at communicating and working together, therefore their production can be better than the less cohesive groups.(Mullins, 2007) Although a cohesive group is note necessarily an effective group.(Robin Fincham & Peter Rhodes, 2005) Cohesive groups do not like to be bound by group norms, it could generate exclusion effects on the team members, they are likely to prescribe 'pro-social behaviours' and 'organizational citizenship'.(Robin Fincham & Peter Rhodes, 2005) Strong cohesive groups may develop a critical or even hostile attitude towards people who are non-member of their group.(Mullins, 2007) They also present potential disadvantages for management, the higher level of output is not guaranteed for cohesive groups.(Mullins, 2007) Further more, there may be a fall in output, with the high level of cohesiveness and attention to social activities.(Mullins, 2007)
      凝聚力是群體認同感產生的力量的復合體。凝聚力的群體可能導致成員之間更大的互動,群體成員相互幫助,使成員感覺更在團隊中歸屬和信任。有凝聚力的團隊成員善于溝通和合作,因此他們的生產可以比凝聚力較差的團隊更好。雖然有凝聚力的團隊必然是一個有效的團隊.有凝聚力的群體不喜歡受群體規范的約束,這可能會對團隊成員產生排斥效應,他們可能會規定“親社會行為”和“組織公民”。強大的凝聚力群體可能會對非群體成員產生批評甚至敵對的態度。他們也存在潛在的劣勢就管理而言,凝聚力群體的產出并不能保證較高。此外,產出可能會下降,因為凝聚力和對社會活動的高度關注。
      The characteristics of an effective work group is the high commitment to the achievement of tasks, there is a clear understanding of what the group work is, group members need to understand of the roles of themselves in the team, free and open communication between members in group and trusting between team members.(Dave Hall, Rob Jones& Carlo Raffo, 2004) Ideas are shared in the team, group members should be helping each other by offering constructive criticisms and suggestions.(Dave Hall, Rob Jones& Carlo Raffo, 2004) The group members should be motivated to be able to have creations and complete their work in satisfaction in order to achieve its group targets or even develop further.
      高效工作團隊的特點是對完成任務的高度承諾,對什么是團隊工作有清晰的認識,團隊成員需要了解自己在團隊中的角色,團隊成員之間自由開放的溝通團隊和團隊成員之間的信任。想法在團隊中共享,團隊成員應該通過提供建設性的批評和建議來互相幫助。應該激勵團隊成員能夠有創造并滿意地完成他們的工作,以實現其團隊目標甚至進一步發展。
      Reflexivity is the ability of a team to reflect critically on the way it solves tasks or members relate to one another.(Robin Fincham & Peter Rhodes, 2005) It may involve some uncomfortable or socially difficult challenges amongst group members.(Robin Fincham & Peter Rhodes, 2005) Michael West(1996) defines " this essential ingredient of group process as ' the extent to which group members overtly reflect upon the group's objectives, strategies and processes, and adapt them to current or antiquated ... Circumstances'" (Robin Fincham & Peter Rhodes, 2005) Reflexivity may be separated in to two factors, Task and Social.(Robin Fincham & Peter Rhodes, 2005) Reflexive task processes indicates the reflection on group objectives, group strategies, group processes and environment.(Robin Fincham & Peter Rhodes, 2005) While the reflection of indications to reflexivity on the social dimension of group life includes, social support, conflict resolution, member development and team climate.(Robin Fincham & Peter Rhodes, 2005) Therefore non-reflexive groups are not as effective as reflexive groups by failing the emphasis part of a process.(Robin Fincham & Peter Rhodes, 2005)
      反思性是團隊批判性地反思其解決任務或成員之間相互關系的方式的能力。它可能涉及團隊成員之間一些不舒服或社交困難的挑戰。Michael West將“團體過程的這一基本要素定義為‘團體成員公開反映團體目標、戰略和過程的程度,并使其適應當前或過時的……環境’”自反性可以分為兩個因素,任務和社會。自反性任務過程表明對群體目標、群體策略、群體過程和環境的反思。雖然對群體生活的社會維度的反思性跡象的反映包括社會支持、沖突解決、成員發展和團隊氛圍。因此,非反身組不如反身組有效,因為它未能通過過程的強調部分。
      Despite, there many disadvantages are related to team working or working in groups. There are some theories which can help to reduce or avoid disadvantages affecting team working. There is a theory which is developed by J. Richard Hackman (1983, 1987, 1990, cited in Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004), it focus on the guidelines that should be pursued to help teams function in their full potential. The first suggestion in the guideline is the task itself need to be ensured which is suitable for the team; secondly is that the team should be recognised as such by its own members and other people in the organisation; thirdly the team need to have clear authority over the working tasks, in other words, they should not be suspicioused by management and other people on their working tasks.(1983, 1987, 1990, cited in Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004) In fourth order, it is crucial that the structure and general culture of the team should be accepted as like the importance to group norms which reflects in team working.(1983, 1987, 1990, cited in Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004) Fifthly in the guidelines that the organisation must support the team as far as possible, the organisation's policies and systems should also reflects of support to obtain group's needs.(1983, 1987, 1990, cited in Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004) Lastly from the guidelines, expert coaching and feedbacks should be provided to the teams when they are in need of it and when team members are ready to receive it or more of it.(1983, 1987, 1990, cited in Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004)
      盡管如此,團隊工作或小組工作仍有許多缺點。有一些理論可以幫助減少或避免影響團隊工作的不利因素。 J. Richard Hackman 提出了一個理論,它側重于幫助團隊充分發揮其潛力的指導方針。指南中的第一個建議是需要確保適合團隊的任務本身;其次,團隊應該被自己的成員和組織中的其他人認可;第三,團隊需要對工作任務有明確的權限,換句話說,他們不應該被管理層和其他人懷疑他們的工作任務。 第四順序, 至關重要的是,團隊的結構和一般文化應該被接受為對團隊規范的重要性,這反映在團隊工作中。組織必須盡可能地支持團隊,組織的政策和系統也應該反映獲得團隊需求的支持。 最后,從指導方針來看,專家指導和反饋應該在團隊需要并且團隊成員準備好接收或更多時提供給團隊。
      In social identity theory, the basic motivational prospection is the need for self-esteem.(Robin Fincham & Peter Rhodes, 2005) An individual's self-evaluation implicates the group membership, it means that when people perceive positive distinctiveness in other groups they can do one of the three thing, join the outgroup; to change their own perception of negative distinctiveness into positive distinctiveness by redefining the components of that status comparison; thirdly, when the status dimension is a valued resource, the tactics will lead to conflict between two teams.(Robin Fincham & Peter Rhodes, 2005) The solution to intergroup conflict lies in contriving conditions in which shared goals can be perceived, this is based on the assumption that superordinate goals will create a superordinate group.
      References  參考文獻
      Buchanan, D. & Huczynski, A., 2004.Organisational behaviour: an introductory text.5th ed. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.
      Mullins, L. J., 2007.Management and organisational behaviour.8th ed. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.
      Robin Fincham (eds). (2005). Principles of Organizational Behaviour. New York, United states: Oxford University Press.
      Ian Chanbers and Dave Gray (eds). (2004). Business Studies. Edinburgh Gate,Harlow,Essex: Pearson Education.
      John Wolinski (eds). (2004). AQA AS Business Studies. London: Philip Allan.
      MBA Essay在文末中提出在社會認同理論中,基本的動機前景是對自尊的需要。個人的自我評價暗示了群體成員身份,這意味著當人們在其他群體中感知到積極的獨特性時,他們可以做到 三件事之一,加入外群; 通過重新定義地位比較的組成部分,將他們自己對負面獨特性的看法轉變為正面獨特性; 第三,當地位維度是一種有價值的資源時,策略會導致兩個團隊之間的沖突。 群體間沖突的解決方案在于創造可以感知共同目標的條件,這是基于 假設上級目標將創建上級組。

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