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      人力資源Essay結構:Cultural Variables in MNCs

      論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-02-07 09:21:48 來源:www.ourpropertyvalue.com 作者:留學作業網

      本文是人力資源專業的Essay范例,題目是Cultural Variables in MNCs(跨國公司的文化變量)”,國際商業文獻強調了全球一體化和日益增多的界面的重要性,這些界面存在于現代跨國公司(MNC)內的人、國家和文化之間。管理一個跨國公司需要管理的差異與本地特色日益定位為一個競爭差異化點(哈特曼,FeiselSchober, 2010)。Rosenzweig(2006)的工作強調了全球一體化和本地響應的壓力,要求跨國公司成功地平衡文化和制度變量。這篇報告,借鑒研究,以批判性地評估三個文化變量和三個制度變量,在這篇文章中被定位為具有影響力的跨國公司的管理和員工行為。對跨國公司的研究通常將其定位為復雜和多層次的性質(Scherer, PalazzoSeidl, 2013)??鐕驹诠芾韽碗s的互動方面面臨越來越多的挑戰,因此,這要求公司了解員工和管理行為的維度,兩者都受到文化和制度變量的影響(Meyer, MudambiNarula, 2011)。這篇文章首先考慮文化變量對跨國公司的重要性。

      The international business literature highlights the importance of global integration and the increasing interfaces, which exist between people, nations and cultures within the modern multi-national corporation (MNC). Managing a MNC requires a management of differences with local distinctiveness increasingly positioned as a point for competitive differentiation (Hartmann, Feisel and Schober, 2010). The pressure for global integration and local responsiveness as highlighted in the work of Rosenzweig (2006) requires MNCs to successfully balance both cultural and institutional variables. This report, draws on research in order to critically evaluate three cultural variables and three institutional variables which are positioned in this essay as having the power to influence managerial and employee behaviour within MNCs. Research into MNCs often positions them as being complex and multi-layered in nature (Scherer, Palazzo and Seidl, 2013). MNCs face growing challenges in managing the complexity of interactions and thus, this requires firms to understand dimensions of employee and managerial behaviour and both are influenced by cultural and institutional variables (Meyer, Mudambi and Narula, 2011). This essay begins with a consideration of cultural variables of importance to MNCs.

       人力資源Essay范例

      Culture is defined by Hofstede (1980, p. 12) as: Not a characteristic of individuals; it encompasses a number of people who were conditioned by the same education and life experience. When we speak of the culture of a group, a tribe, a geographical region, a national minority, or a nation, culture refers to the collective mental programming that is different from that of other groups, tribes, regions, minorities or majorities, or nations.

      Hofstede(1980,第12)對文化的定義是:“不是個人的特征;它包含了一些人,他們受到相同的教育和生活經驗的制約。當我們談到一個群體、一個部落、一個地理區域、一個少數民族或一個民族的文化時,文化是指不同于其他群體、部落、地區、少數或多數或民族的集體心理規劃。

       

      Broadly speaking, culture refers to the collective mental programming of individuals and this influences the way in which managers and employees behave within the firm. One cultural variable of importance is national culture and in particular as highlighted in the work of Hofstede (1980) five dimensions of culture should be considered: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism/collectivism, masculinity/femininity and short-long-term orientation. Managerial and employee behaviour within MNCs is inherently influenced by cultural dynamics with employees being a product of the culture they exist within. Two cultural elements in particular require consideration, power distance is a cultural dimension, which refers to the extent that individuals accept differences between people as legitimate and expected. If the population has a high power distance, then this reflects a focus on hierarchical power and differences in status. Employees from this culture would be accepting of different managerial groups and taking lead from those above them. This naturally influences employee behaviour with employees in a high power distance culture able to accept instruction from managers (Farh, Hackett and Liang, 2007). Farh, Hackett and Liang (2007) evidence this by arguing that power distance impacts upon levels of perceived organisational support and the outcome of employee relationships within the firm. Hofstede (1980) also highlighted the importance of individualism/collectivism and the need to understand the extent to which individuals focus on individual needs or the needs of the group. This is a cultural variable, which impacts upon behaviour within the firm. Further, an additional complexity lies in the international operations of the MNC and a firm will have to deal with different cultures. For example, India is viewed as a collectivist culture compared to the UK, which is more individualistic in nature. This will have natural implications on employee behaviour and the management of relationships within the firm.

       

      A second cultural variable refers to cross cultural differences across employees within the MNC. It is important that MNCs are able to develop cross-cultural teams in a manner, which enhances the ability of the firm to integrate innovative thinking with the competitive orientation of the firm. Managers within MNCs have to be able to avoid cultural misunderstandings and adopt a level of cultural sensitivity. Haas and Cummings (2014) argue that due to the multi-layered nature of MNCs there is a need to focus upon person-based differences. The development of cross-cultural teams is often highlighted as being an important condition of competitive performance (Caligiuri and Lundby, 2015). Barner-Rasmussen et al (2013) position cultural skills as a resource, which maximizes organisational human capital. In order to maximize the effective positioning of human capital, managers have to be able to understand the role culture plays in creating an underlying, strong link amongst individuals (Schein, 2012).

      第二個文化變量是指跨國公司內部員工的跨文化差異。重要的是,跨國公司能夠在一定程度上培養跨文化團隊,從而提高企業將創新思維與企業競爭導向相結合的能力??鐕镜墓芾碚弑仨毮軌虮苊馕幕`解,并采取一定程度的文化敏感性。HaasCummings(2014)認為,由于跨國公司的多層性質,有必要關注以人為本的差異??缥幕瘓F隊的發展往往被強調為競爭績效的重要條件(CaligiuriLundby, 2015)。Barner-Rasmussen等人(2013)將文化技能定位為一種資源,它可以最大化組織的人力資本。為了最大化人力資本的有效定位,管理者必須能夠理解文化在創造個人之間潛在的、強有力的聯系中所扮演的角色(Schein, 2012)。

       

      A third cultural variable of consideration is the study of organisational culture (Schein, 2012). Organisational culture refers to the shared values and the inherent norms which exist within the firm (Schein, 2012). Pothukuchi et al (2002) argued that organisational culture could have a negative impact on international business and on the actions of MNCs. Considered to be a mechanism of differentiation; organisational culture is positioned as overseeing and supporting employee behaviour within the MNC. Due to the multi-layered nature of the MNC, Al-Husan, Al-Hussan and Perkins (2014) argue that there is a need to have multilevel human resource management systems in place in order to support different employee groups. This does however raise a challenge with regards to the promotion of consistency while at the same time differentiating on the basis of culture. This is a particular challenge for the MNC where a global, brand image is required amongst the dynamic determinants of employee behaviour within the firm. Sofka et al (2014) argue that for an effective organisational culture to result, MNCs have to be able to focus upon value creation.

       

      Cultural variables are a soft consideration, which ultimately have the power to affect employee behaviour within MNCs. Difficulty lies in the intangible nature and the difficulty associated with the measurement of organisational culture (Baird, Hu and Reeve, 2011). Thus, while cultural variables notably are considered to impact upon MNCs and the wider realm of international business, it is difficult to precisely account for difference and this is largely tied up within the power of individuals within the firm. It is important however to utilize frameworks such as those provided by Hofstede (1980) to move towards a more detailed appreciation of culture (Hofstede, 2011).

      文化變量是一個軟考慮因素,它最終會影響跨國公司的員工行為。困難在于無形的本質和與組織文化測量相關的困難(Baird, HuReeve, 2011)。因此,雖然文化變量被認為對跨國公司和更廣泛的國際商業領域產生影響,但很難準確地解釋差異,這在很大程度上與公司內部的個人力量有關。然而,重要的是要利用Hofstede(1980)提供的框架,以更詳細地欣賞文化(Hofstede, 2011)。

       

      Aligned to the multi-layered nature of the MNC, culture can also be viewed as having different layers (Steenkamp, 2001). National culture as reviewed in the work of Hofstede (1980: 2011) is one layer but it must be appreciated alongside other elements of culture including more microelements including organisational culture. The study of culture and its impact on international business requires a greater exploration of how different elements of culture interact.

      與跨國公司的多層次本質相一致,文化也可以被視為具有不同的層次(Steenkamp, 2001)。Hofstede(1980: 2011)的作品中所回顧的民族文化是一個層面,但它必須與其他文化元素一起欣賞,包括更多的微觀元素,包括組織文化。文化及其對國際商務的影響的研究需要對文化的不同元素如何相互作用進行更大的探索。

       

      Managerial and employee behaviour is also influenced by a number of institutional variables. This essay discusses three institutional variables in particular: political, religious and economic. Each institution affects firms differently dependent upon the country of operation. Morgan, Kristensen and Whitley (2001) argue that a multinational firm must be able to organize across institutional devices and this requires an understanding of different economic, political and religious considerations. While increased attention has been directed towards the value of standardized approaches, in reality, adaptation is considered to be the most effective way to deal with different dynamics in the external environment (Teece, 2009).

      管理和員工行為也受到一些制度變量的影響。本文主要討論三個制度變量:政治、宗教和經濟。每個機構對公司的影響因經營國家的不同而不同。摩根、克里斯滕森和惠特利(2001)認為,跨國公司必須能夠跨機構組織,這需要理解不同的經濟、政治和宗教考慮。盡管越來越多的人關注標準化方法的價值,但在現實中,適應被認為是處理外部環境中不同動態的最有效方式(Teece, 2009)。

       人力資源Essay怎么寫

      The political environment is widely considered to influence the environment within which MNCs operate. Luo (2004) highlights the importance of developing a platform built on co-operation between the MNC and the host government. An inclusive, integrated partnership is often positioned as being the most effective platform from which to build relationships. Present within a particular political institution, individuals will align to a particular political identity. A political institution such as the leadership of the Conservative government in the UK has the power to influence the way in which employees and managers behave. Largely, the influence on behaviour is fuelled by regulation and the design of policies and practices. Any new regulation implemented will have a natural effect on behaviour within the firm. Difficulties however arise when change is resisted within the firm and this can often arise through a collection of individuals promoting the status quo within the firm (Hayes, 2007). Offering a different viewpoint to that of Luo (2004), Heikkil?, Brewster and Mattila (2014) argue that while largely political institutions affect the larger operation of the MNC, what is needed is a more micro exploration as to how political conflicts can influence employee behaviour. They, in particular, argue that political conflicts within a given country or amongst individuals within the firm can result in inherent challenges related to the overall effectiveness of human resource management within the firm. From a critical perspective, the work of Heikkil?, Brewster and Mattila (2014) highlights the importance of both a macro and micro exploration of the political institution. Too often the political institution is viewed as having a higher-level influence on the firm.

       

      A consideration of religion is needed within any MNC. An internalized look at an individual is needed in order to understand and then manage individuals at work (Hollway, 1991). An analysis of employee behaviour promotes an understanding of individuals and, importantly what makes up that individual. Lund Dean, Fornaciari and McGee (2003) explore the influence of religion on employee behaviour and argue that religion plays a core role in influencing employee behaviour and should therefore be given more consideration than it currently is across the academic community. More specifically, McGhee and Grant (2008) explore the link between religion and work and argue that individuals behaviours interpret their own individual actions through a religious lens. Increasingly, attention has been directed towards the links, which exist between the religious orientation of an individual and their ethical behaviour in the workplace. Playing an important role in the global economy, increased attention is directed towards the brand image of MNCs and their responsibility to the wider community. Religion as an institution thus becomes important to consider how this influences the way in which individuals interpret decisions and perhaps behave in an ethical manner due to their religious affiliations. Another consideration related to religion refers to the prominence of diversity and, in particular the levels of diversity MNCs have to deal with. The modern day MNC must be able to manage this diversity and use it to their advantage by promoting difference across the firm within cross-cultural teams.

      任何跨國公司都需要考慮宗教因素。為了理解和管理工作中的個體,需要對個體進行內化的觀察(Hollway, 1991)。對員工行為的分析促進了對個體的理解,重要的是,是什么構成了個體。Lund Dean, FornaciariMcGee(2003)探討了宗教對員工行為的影響,并認為宗教在影響員工行為方面起著核心作用,因此應該比目前學術界給予更多的考慮。更具體地說,McGheeGrant(2008)探討了宗教和工作之間的聯系,并認為個人的行為通過宗教的視角解釋了他們自己的個人行為。人們越來越注意個人的宗教傾向與其工作場所的道德行為之間存在的聯系??鐕驹谌蚪洕邪l揮著重要作用,其品牌形象及其對社會的責任受到越來越多的關注。因此,宗教作為一種制度,考慮它如何影響個人解釋決定的方式,以及由于他們的宗教信仰而可能以道德方式行事,就變得很重要。另一個與宗教有關的考慮是突出多樣性,特別是跨國公司必須處理的多樣性水平?,F代的跨國公司必須能夠管理這種多樣性,并通過在跨文化團隊中促進公司內部的差異來利用它的優勢。

       

      A final institutional variable considered is the role of the economic institution in influencing employee and managerial behaviour. The economic institution captures all institutions that are a player in the economy. This includes everything from competitors, consumers to those providing financial services. Focusing upon one specific economic institution, this essay argues that it is important to focus upon manufacturers and how this particular economic institution influences employee and managerial behaviour. In a global market, which is often positioned as being highly, dynamic and adaptable, there is a need for firms to understand how the actions of manufacturers will influence the behaviour of individuals within the firm. For example, any changes in manufacturing resulting in a change of process within the firm would have a natural influence on employee behaviour and importantly the way in which managers approach change within the firm (Hayes, 2007). Managers need to be closely aligned to manufacturers they are working with and use this to guide an integrated approach to behaviour. Within the economic setting, any economic institution has the power to influence the objectives and future of the firm. A focus on the sustainable future of the firm is required to ensure that if changes in the market exist for example changes to demand and supply, managers must be able to adapt in a timely manner. Economic institutions are thus often positioned as driving flexible and adaptable decision making from managers (Liu, 2009).

       

      In conclusion, research into MNCs suggests that they are complex and multi-layered in nature. The role and prominence of MNCs requires attention to be directed towards the individuals, which make up the actions of the firm. As discussed in the essay a number of cultural and institutional variables can be identified as having an influence on the way in which employees and managers behave. A running theme throughout the discussion is the importance of balancing micro level considerations with a higher-level understanding of macro phenomenon. This therefore promotes the need to conduct research at multiple levels within the firm most notably starting with individual employees.

      總之,對跨國公司的研究表明,跨國公司在本質上是復雜和多層次的??鐕镜淖饔煤屯怀鲂枰⒁鈽嫵晒拘袆拥膫€人。正如文章中所討論的,一些文化和制度變量可以被確定為對員工和管理者的行為方式有影響。貫穿整個討論的一個主題是平衡微觀層面的考慮與宏觀現象的更高層次理解的重要性。因此,這就需要在公司內部進行多層次的研究,尤其是從單個員工開始。

       

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