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      管理學essay該怎么寫—Importance of Ethics in Business

      論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-09-08 10:08:10 來源:www.ourpropertyvalue.com 作者:留學作業網

      管理學essay范文——商業道德的重要性,本文是一篇留學生管理專業的Essay寫作格式參考范文。根據《劍橋英語詞典》,dilemma指的是你必須在兩件不同的事情中做出艱難選擇的情況;道德困境是指必須在兩個既不完全可接受又不可取的選擇之間作出決定的道德狀況。(Fernado, no date)在這篇文章中,我們正在討論倫理理論或模型在管理者的職業生涯中處理發生在他們工作場所的倫理壓力(困境)的相關性。我個人認為倫理理論不能為管理者提供準確的指導,從而得出道德結論。以下是管理學essay范例寫作的全部內容,是一篇符合國外大學Essay寫作格式要求的范文,供參考。

      管理學參考范文

      According to Cambridge English dictionary, dilemma means a situation in which a  difficult choice has to be made between two different things you could do; an ethical dilemma is a moral situation in which a decision has to be made between two option which is neither fully acceptable or preferable. (Fernado, no date)In this essay we are discussing the relevance of Ethical theories or models in managers professional life to deal with the ethical pressure (dilemmas) occurring in their work place. Personally, I believe that the Ethical theories cannot provide accurate guidance to the managers to reach a moral conclusion.

      Importance of Ethics in Business商業道德的重要性

      Ethics are crucial to the business organizations as well as the whole society. Good Ethic is required for effective Business practice. Ethical behavior of everyone in an organization plays a vital role in a firm’s reputation or we can say that it reflects the culture of the company. Human nature and irrelevant control of management forces manager to face several ethical dilemmas in an organization. However, each company have their own Codes of Ethics to deal with these issues, but due to the different point of view of individual to see things may make it difficult for managers to choose the moral one or precisely the ethic decision. Social interaction with school, parents, religious institution, friends and so on make each individual aware about the right and wrong decision, but to deal with the unique ethical problems of their profession they need special training, so they can recognize the ethical dilemmas that may arise in their job. According to Andrew Crane, “Business ethics is the study of business situations, activities, and decisions where issues of right and wrong are addressed”. In short, business ethic means conduct the business in a moral way to give the welfare to the community. Anyway, failure to implement the ethical standard within an organization may affects the entity in various ways like its reputation, unwillingness of professionals to join such business and even it makes company less appealing to stakeholders. (Akrani, 2011)

      道德對商業組織和整個社會都至關重要。有效的商業行為需要良好的道德規范。一個組織中每個人的道德行為對一個公司的聲譽起著至關重要的作用,或者我們可以說它反映了公司的文化。人性和管理的不相關控制迫使管理者在組織中面臨若干道德困境。然而,每個公司都有自己的道德規范來處理這些問題,但由于個人看待事情的角度不同,可能會使管理者很難選擇道德的一個,或準確的道德決策。與學校、父母、宗教機構、朋友等的社會交往使每個人都能意識到正確和錯誤的決定,但要處理他們職業特有的倫理問題,他們需要特殊的訓練,這樣他們就能認識到在他們的工作中可能出現的倫理困境。安德魯·克蘭認為,“商業倫理是對商業環境、活動和決策的研究,其中涉及對與錯的問題?!焙喍灾?,商業倫理是指以道德的方式經營企業,為社會帶來福利。無論如何,未能在一個組織內實施道德標準可能會以各種方式影響實體,如其聲譽,不愿專業人士加入這樣的業務,甚至使公司更不吸引利益相關者。(Akrani, 2011)

      Managers Role in Ethics Conduct管理者在道德行為中的角色

      Managers one of the primary responsibilities in an organization is to ensure that they and their subordinates are behaving ethically and will not affect any stakeholders adversely. Managers would face many ethical dilemmas in their work place may be with their supervisors, customers, management, subordinates, competitors and so on and the issues can be performance, evaluation, discipline, honesty etc…. But they must make sure that their each decision reflects the moral motivation and positive character traits such as Integrity, Trust, Fairness, Self-control and Humility because they are role models for the employees in their department. An ethical organizational culture will only be possible by a responsible and ethical manager. The failure of manager to follow ethics can even lead to the collapse of a company. Nationalization of the third largest bank in Ireland “The Anglo-Irish Bank” in 2009 is an example for this. The failure of Anglo-Irish chief executive Mr. Sean Fitzpatrick to practice virtue ethics caused the reputation of the bank to be destroyed, leading to its near collapse and nationalization.(Chu, 2014) So it is clear that unethical behavior and immoral decision of manager can even collapse a company.

      在一個組織中,管理者的主要職責之一是確保他們和他們的下屬的行為是合乎道德的,不會對任何利益相關者產生負面影響。管理者在工作中會面臨許多道德困境,可能是與他們的主管,客戶,管理,下屬,競爭對手等,問題可以是表現,評估,紀律,誠實等....但他們必須確保他們的每一個決定都反映了道德動機和積極的性格特征,如正直、信任、公平、自控和謙遜,因為他們是他們部門員工的榜樣。一個有道德的組織文化只有在一個負責任和有道德的管理者身上才能實現。管理者不遵守職業道德甚至會導致公司的倒閉。2009年愛爾蘭第三大銀行“盎格魯-愛爾蘭銀行”的國有化就是一個例子。愛爾蘭裔首席執行官肖恩·菲茨帕特里克(Sean Fitzpatrick)未能踐行美德倫理,導致該行聲譽受損,瀕臨倒閉和國有化。(Chu, 2014)可見,管理者的不道德行為和不道德決策甚至會導致公司倒閉。

      essay怎么寫

      Ethical Theories and Its application倫理學理論及其應用

      Prescriptive approach and descriptive approach are the two different ways for an individual to take ethical decision. The major contemporary approaches in prescriptive are Consequentialist theories, Virtue ethics and Deontological theories. Consequentialist theory would suggest employees to think about the consequences of the decision or action, when Virtue ethics will ask individual to pay attention on integrity, while deontologist decision will be based on duties, obligations and principles. Each theory suggests three different ways to face problems and as a result each approach will conflict with each other. For example, let’s consider the financial crisis that happened in US due to the loan sanctioned by Mortgage brokers to NINJA. In this case, a consequentialist  would have focused on the damages  that could have caused to primary stakeholders and secondary stakeholders by these risky mortgages, a deontologist would have focused attention on the relevance of honesty, responsibility and transparency they should maintained with the customers and a virtue ethics theory would have asked that a person with integrity quality could sell mortgages to people who have no income.(Trevino and Nelson, no date, p. 51).And the toughest situation would arise when each theories suggest different guidance’s to an ethical dilemma and in such occasion it will be up to the decision maker to examine the situation thoroughly as possible considering the values and principles, social responsibility and integrity to reach a conclusion. Let’s consider other example where consequentialist theory contradicts with deontologist reasoning, In World War II Germany was compelled by Nazis to spill the truth about the place where Jews were hiding. If Germany told the truth about Jews to Nazis authorities then the consequence would be the death of Jews so consequentialist approach would suggest Germany to keep num, but as per deontological approach Germany should have spoken truth to Nazis because deontological principle stick on truth and honesty, so in short the managers faces difficulty to take moral decision because each theory conflict with each other reasoning and as a result manager get confuse to take the decision.

      Anyway, Linda Klebe Trevino and Katherine A. Nelson recommend eight steps to coordinate these three different analyses and they propose a linear decision-making process. The first step is to find the facts, even though it is difficult to identify due to the uncertainty that found around the ethical issues but the worry part is facts that we found can be biased due to our over confidence or may be due to confirmation trap.(Trevino and Nelson, no date, p. 87).Then next step is to identify the multiple ethical issues of the situation. The third step is to identify the primary stakeholders and secondary stakeholders of the issues and then should view things on their perspective. Then next process is to find out about the potential positive and negative consequences for the affected stakeholders by the decision taken. In business, it is necessary to identify all short-term consequences, long term consequences and systematic consequences (symbolic and secrecy) before reaching a conclusion. Barriers such as choosing the consequences for self rather than to society, underestimating the risk that could arise and reducing the number of consequences to simplify the problem could be arise while identifying the consequences and it is necessary to deal with these issues in a broad way to identify the important consequences. Then the next step is to find out the obligation that could be raised due to the rights and principles of stakeholders and the sixth step is checking how society is going to evaluate our character based on our decision and the next step suggest that before taking any decision manager must think creatively about all potential action and the last step suggest decision maker to show guts without fearing.(Trevino and Nelson, no date, pp. 51–58).

      總之,Linda Klebe Trevino和Katherine a . Nelson推薦了8個步驟來協調這三種不同的分析,他們提出了一個線性決策過程。第一步是找到事實,盡管由于圍繞倫理問題發現的不確定性很難確定,但令人擔憂的是,我們發現的事實可能會由于我們的過度自信或可能是由于確認陷阱而產生偏差。(特維諾和納爾遜,沒有日期,第87頁)。然后下一步是確定情況的多重倫理問題。第三步是確定問題的主要利益相關者和次要利益相關者,然后應該從他們的角度看待問題。接下來的過程是找出所采取的決定對受影響的利益相關者可能產生的積極和消極后果。在商業中,在得出結論之前,有必要確定所有的短期后果、長期后果和系統后果(象征性和保密)。在確定后果的同時,還會出現諸如選擇對自己而不是對社會的后果、低估可能產生的風險以及減少后果的數量以簡化問題等障礙,有必要以廣泛的方式處理這些問題以確定重要的后果。然后下一步是找出義務,可以提高由于利益相關者的權利和原則,第六步是檢查社會將如何評估我們的性格基于我們的決定,下一步建議,在采取任何決策之前,經理必須創造性地思考所有潛在的行動,最后一步建議決策者顯示勇氣,而不害怕。(Trevino和Nelson,沒有日期,第51-58頁)。

      Let’s take the example stated by Linda and Katherine in their book Management Business Ethics. They told about an ethical dilemma faced by Pat the plant manager in ABC Company. She was in such a situation that telling the truth about staff layoff to her friends will make her disloyal to the company at the same time hiding about staff layoff from her close friend will make Pat disloyal towards her friend. In this case, Pat may find it difficult to find out all facts especially the time workers would take to find a new Job .Pat, the workers, Pat’s Boss, society, the company are the affected stakeholders.  The right of both the workers and company to know and hide about layoff and the loyalty that company and workers expect from Pat are the main ethical issues Pat face. The consequences of telling and hiding about the staff layoff would be, Pat may lose her job, workers will get time to find other placement, Pat will remain in good book of management or workers have to suffer from sudden job loss. Anyway, before reaching a conclusion Pat should have to think about the duties towards company as an employee also about how society is going to value her by the decision she take. However, Pat can warn both employees and management like not to make any big financial commitment or about the aftereffect of hiding the layoff truth from employees.At last Pat must take a decision considering all these factors and should have the gut to stand on the decision taken by her

      In conclusion, the theories and all these steps will only help managers to deal with the ethical dilemma more carefully or we can say it help managers to view the various “lenses” of the issue from different angle. And at last managers must take a moral decision from all these multiple conclusions. I feel that theories only give little guidance to manager to take a decision.

      總之,這些理論和所有這些步驟只會幫助管理者更仔細地處理道德困境,或者我們可以說,它幫助管理者從不同的角度看待問題的各種“鏡頭”。最后,管理者必須從所有這些多重結論中做出道德決策。我覺得理論對管理者做決定的指導作用很小。

      Bibliography 參考文獻

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