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      留學生金融學作業-History and Role of Banks

      論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-07-05 10:55:09 來源:www.ourpropertyvalue.com 作者:留學作業網

      留學生金融學作業-銀行的歷史和作用。本文是一篇留學生作業范文,主要內容是講述由于世界上幾乎每個人都從事過某種類型的銀行業務,無論是作為一個處理現金、信貸和其他金融交易的安全場所,還是一個存儲多余現金的場所,一個允許消費者為產品、房屋、汽車借款的場所,還是通過提供資金來啟動某人的夢想來幫助企業發展的場所。銀行業已被視為當今美國經濟的關鍵驅動因素之一,因為銀行業為家庭和企業未來投資提供了所需的流動性。1949年的《銀行監管法》將銀行業定義為:“借貸和投資的目的,公眾存款,可按要求或其他方式償還,并可通過支票、匯票或其他方式提取”?!斗稍~典》將銀行業定義為“從公眾或通過金融市場接受存款的業務,目的是以更高的利率放貸”。無論銀行業的定義是什么,銀行對客戶負有許多責任,包括確保其資金安全、現金支票、存款和取款以及保密。下面是關于銀行的歷史和作用的留學生作業的全文內容,供參考。

      留學生作業范文

      Introduction 簡介
      As almost everyone in the world has dealt with some type of banking, whether it be used a safe place that handles cash, credit, and other financial transactions, a place to store excess cash, a place that allows consumers to borrow money for products, homes, cars, and/or helps businesses grow by providing funds to start someone’s dream. Banking has been noted as being one of the key drivers in the US economy today as banking provides the liquidity needed for families and businesses to invest for the future (Amadeo, 2018) The Banking Regulation Act of 1949 defined banking as “the purpose of lending and investment, deposits of money from the public repayable on demand or otherwise and withdrawable by check, draft or noted as otherwise”. The legal dictionary defined banking as “the business of receiving deposits from the public or via the financial markets, with the object of on-lending at a higher rate of interest”. Regardless of what banking is defined as, banks have many duties to the customer, which include keeping their money safe, cash checks, deposit and withdraw money as well as maintain confidentiality.
      History 歷史
       Banking like technology has been an ever-changing industry. In today’s banking market, banks offer a much wider range of services and products that they have ever before, and at an alarming faster rate as well but as mentioned on Fact Monster.com, banking has never lost its true purpose which is to put people and communities first by helping families surplus funds, lending money to help people buy necessities, put children through college and countless other purposes. For almost everyone in the world, banking is vital to their lives and a first choice when wanting to save, borrow and/or invest (Factmonster.com, 2017).
      類似銀行業的技術一直是一個不斷變化的行業。在今天的銀行市場上,銀行提供了前所未有的更廣泛的服務和產品,并且以驚人的速度增長,但事實上也是如此。銀行業從未失去其真正的宗旨,即通過幫助家庭剩余資金、貸款幫助人們購買必需品、讓孩子上大學和無數其他用途,把人和社區放在首位。對于世界上幾乎所有人來說,銀行業對他們的生活至關重要,是他們儲蓄、借貸和/或投資的首選。
      When looking at the history of banks, the first banks became available in 1791. In most states, bank organizers needed special permission from the state government to open and operate while also being supervised by the Bank of the United States, which was created in 1816 until 1832 (Factmonster.com, 2017). Back in the 1800s, bankers had to be cautious about who they lent and for how long since money than was scarce, and they needed to make sure they had enough for unexpected times, at that time, thirty to sixty-day loans were the norm. Soon after the Bank of the United States went out of business in 1832, state governments took over the job of being the banks’ supervisors, yet they proved not to be good ones. During that time, banks made loans using their own money and notes were being used in exchange for gold or silver. State governments were supposed to make sure that the notes equaled up to the cash on hand, but many times that was not the case and the commerce suffered, and banks began to fail. In 1863, the National Currency Act was put in place and President Lincoln signed into law the National Bank Act. The national bank act created a new system of banks that were to be controlled by a Comptroller of the Currency. When looking at the history of banks coming into the 1900s, it is stated that the new laws that were put in place worked well and no national bank lost its money due to the supervision of US government securities but then in 1930s, the banking crisis began due to the worldwide depression. In 1931, more than 1,000 U.S. banks failed due to defaulted loans and deflation of value on assets. When President Roosevelt was put in office, he made the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) examine all banks to see if they were able to stay open and serve customers with the currency that had. In 1933, the FDIC was put in place and accounts were protected up to 2,500 per depositor as well as other laws passed that regulated bank activities and allowed customers to have the relief that their money and assets were safe and sound.
      回顧銀行的歷史,第一批銀行出現在1791年。在大多數州,銀行組織者需要獲得州政府的特別許可才能開業和運營,同時還需要接受1816年至1832年成立的美國銀行的監督。早在19世紀,由于資金短缺,銀行家們不得不對借出的人和借出的時間保持謹慎,他們需要確保自己有足夠的資金應付意外的時刻,當時,30到60天的貸款是正常的。1832年美國銀行倒閉后不久,州政府接管了銀行監管機構的工作,但事實證明,這些監管機構并不好。在那段時間里,銀行用自己的錢發放貸款,紙幣被用來交換黃金或白銀。州政府本應確保票據與手頭現金持平,但很多時候情況并非如此,商業受到影響,銀行開始倒閉。1863年,《國家貨幣法》出臺,林肯總統簽署了《國家銀行法》?!秶毅y行法》創建了一個新的銀行體系,由貨幣主計長控制?;仡欍y行進入20世紀的歷史,有人指出,實施的新法律運作良好,沒有一家國家銀行因美國政府證券的監管而虧損,但在20世紀30年代,由于全球經濟蕭條,銀行危機開始了。1931年,由于貸款違約和資產價值縮水,1000多家美國銀行倒閉。當羅斯??偨y上任時,他讓貨幣監理署(OCC)檢查所有銀行,看看它們是否能夠保持營業,并用已發行的貨幣為客戶服務。1933年,聯邦存款保險公司(FDIC)成立,每個儲戶的賬戶受保護高達2500個,并通過了其他法律來監管銀行活動,允許客戶放心,他們的資金和資產是安全可靠的。
       Looking at banking today and back to the 1980s, technology has overtaken the whole banking industry. We have been able to enjoy the luxuries of telephone banking, debit and credit cards, ATMs and electronic banking. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency now uses technology to ensure that banks are being operated as they are supposed to be and has the control that is needed within today’s economy, which has caused the banking industry to double from 1980 to 2000. The profitability of banks grew even faster and represented 30% of all profits in 2007, which was a huge growth from it being only 13% in the late 1970s (Amadeo, 2018).
      回顧今天的銀行業,回到20世紀80年代,技術已經超越了整個銀行業。我們已經能夠享受電話銀行、借記卡和信用卡、自動柜員機和電子銀行的奢侈。貨幣主計長辦公室現在使用技術確保銀行按預期運作,并擁有當今經濟所需的控制權,這導致銀行業從1980年到2000年翻了一番。銀行的盈利能力增長更快,占2007年全部利潤的30%,這是一個巨大的增長,而在20世紀70年代末只有13%。
      Corporate stakeholders and respond to their issues  公司利益相關者并回應他們的問題
      Within the banking industry, there are several different stakeholders. Those include customers, depositors, regulators, investors, taxpayers, politicians and the directors and staff of banks. As all stakeholders hold the interest of a properly functioning banking system, none of the stakeholders work alone. Although the power among stakeholders varies by group, the power of shareholders, directors, and staff have weakened while the one who is considered depositors have a privileged position among the stakeholders (Dunbar and Clunie, 2013). Within the banking industry, each stakeholder has the potential to fight and ask for a change if they feel as if that the power between stakeholders is unfair or deemed improper. Ultimately though, a balance between all stakeholders is what is required and will include an acceptable regulatory, political and social environment for funders, bond investors and equity investors alike (Dunbar and Clunie, 2013). Stakeholders have begun to respond to issues that affect them and the banks they are apart of by participating in a CSR, which is a corporate social responsibility. In a Webranking survey, it states that participants that are in a capital-market who expect banks to involve their stakeholders to participate in a corporate social responsibility process to help them better understand the important role that stakeholders have in today’s business. The capital markets then decided which CSR targets are set and achieved and then how developments will be reported. Stakeholders also respond to issues by having engagement, both internally and externally. Stakeholders are aware that in order to gain and maintain trust and continuing to manage reputational risk by engaging key members in a business to see what is important to them (Osburne, 2016).
      在銀行業內部,有幾個不同的利益相關者。這些人包括客戶、儲戶、監管機構、投資者、納稅人、政客以及銀行的董事和員工。由于所有利益相關者都關心正常運作的銀行系統,因此沒有一個利益相關者獨自工作。雖然利益相關者之間的權力因群體而異,但股東、董事和員工的權力有所削弱,而被視為儲戶的人在利益相關者中享有特權地位。在銀行業內部,如果每個利益相關者覺得利益相關者之間的權力不公平或被認為不適當,他們都有可能進行斗爭并要求改變。但最終,所有利益相關者之間的平衡是必要的,并將包括為出資人、債券投資者和股票投資者提供可接受的監管、政治和社會環境。利益相關者已經開始通過參與企業社會責任(CSR)來應對影響他們和他們所在的銀行的問題,這是一種企業社會責任。在一項網絡排名調查中,它指出,資本市場中的參與者希望銀行讓其利益相關者參與企業社會責任過程,以幫助他們更好地了解利益相關者在當今業務中的重要作用。然后,資本市場決定設定并實現哪些企業社會責任目標,以及如何報告發展情況。利益相關者還通過內部和外部參與來應對問題。利益相關者意識到,為了獲得和維持信任,并通過讓企業中的關鍵成員了解什么對他們來說是重要的,從而繼續管理聲譽風險。
      The role of the industry in its social, economic, and political setting 行業在其社會、經濟和政治環境中的作用
      Banks play important roles in a social, economic and political setting within our society. As banks roles include assisting customers with finances, investments, assets management as well as supporting economic development and international trade with the contribution to overall financial security. By banks having expert knowledge to help those in the community, they create a value for customers that encourage customer loyalty and long-term shareholder values (SEB, 2018) As banks provide services that people want and need, as it could be impossible to live without, banks are fundamentally socially, economically and politically institutions (Booth, 2011)
      銀行在社會、經濟和政治環境中發揮著重要作用。銀行的職責包括協助客戶進行金融、投資、資產管理,以及支持經濟發展和國際貿易,為整體金融安全做出貢獻。銀行擁有專業知識來幫助社區中的人,從而為客戶創造價值,鼓勵客戶忠誠度和長期股東價值,因為銀行提供人們想要和需要的服務,沒有這些服務就無法生存,銀行從根本上說是社會、經濟和政治機構。
      Domestic and international ethics  國內和國際倫理
      When talking about ethical banking, it is important to know that it encompasses all banking systems that embraces environmentally and socially conscious practices. When banking looks at banking ethically, they look at how they can earn a profit but in a way that is ethical and consistent with their own practices (Financial Bank) US Bank states that their commitment to the highest ethical standards is what makes their banking possible. As they follow a Code of Ethics and Business Conduct, they are proven to be a bank that everyone can trust. As the Code of Ethics mandates that all banks act with integrity, speak when there is a concern all while protecting your reputation and brand while also mitigating risks and strengthens within the ethical culture of the bank (US Bank). As international banking is now becoming the backbone of any economy and plays a very vital role with the development of a financial system of any country, a code of ethics within the international market needs to be set forth. International banking activities have increased rapidly due to the increase of international trading and foreign direct investments, therefore the need for domestic and international ethics is at an all-time high. Banking has become more globalized which then leads to advances in communications and technology among the international market and working with many people within many banking aspects (Shodhganga, 2018)
      當談到道德銀行時,重要的是要知道它涵蓋了所有包含環境和社會意識實踐的銀行系統。當銀行業從道德角度看待銀行業時,他們關注的是如何賺取利潤,但以符合道德且符合自身實踐的方式(金融銀行)美國銀行表示,他們對最高道德標準的承諾是使其銀行業成為可能的原因。由于他們遵循道德規范和商業行為,他們被證明是一家人人都可以信任的銀行。由于《道德準則》要求所有銀行誠信行事,因此在出現問題時發言,同時保護您的聲譽和品牌,同時降低風險,加強銀行(美國銀行)的道德文化。由于國際銀行業正在成為任何經濟體的支柱,并在任何國家金融體系的發展中發揮著至關重要的作用,因此需要在國際市場中制定一套道德規范。由于國際貿易和外國直接投資的增加,國際銀行活動迅速增加,因此對國內和國際道德的需求空前高漲。銀行業變得更加全球化,這導致了國際市場之間通信和技術的進步,并在許多銀行方面與許多人合作。
      Ecological and natural resources  生態和自然資源
      The World Bank, a component of the World Bank Group, is an international financial institution that provides money to countries for a capital project. The World Bank consists of two institutions: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development as well as the International Development Association (World Bank). As the World Bank is committed to helping the environment and national resources, they strive to ensure that the conservation and sustainable use of the environment leads to a supportable growth and ultimately helps lift people out of poverty for good. One strategy that the World Bank articulates is a vision for a “Green, Clean, and Resilient World for All” and has put a ton of effort into supporting productive and thriving landscapes that will cultivate growth, improve livelihoods and sustain life (The World Bank). As environmental issues such as pollution, erosion, and deforestation affect the world, the poorest communities are the ones who will suffer the most as they are impacted the most by the changes and destruction within the environment and has very little resources to help them to adapt. The World Bank makes the commitment to address environmental degradation and help ensure environmental sustainability to help not only improve the environment but as well as reduce poverty and help improve the lives of many. The World Bank Group’s Environment and Natural Resource Group helps provide the expertise, technical assistance and financing to help the countries that are hit with poverty in hopes to manage their land, sea and freshwater natural resources in a way that will create jobs, improve livelihood, enhance the ecosystem; such as carbon sequestration, pollination or water regulation as well as decrease pollution while also increase the resilience to climate change in all hopes to create a safe, clean and thriving community for all (World Bank Group.org)
      世界銀行是世界銀行集團的一個組成部分,是一家國際金融機構,為各國的資本項目提供資金。世界銀行由兩個機構組成:國際復興開發銀行和國際開發協會(世界銀行)。由于世界銀行致力于幫助環境和國家資源,它們努力確保環境的保護和可持續利用帶來可支持的增長,并最終幫助人們永遠擺脫貧困。世界銀行闡述的一項戰略是“人人共享的綠色、清潔和有彈性的世界”的愿景,并已投入大量精力支持生產和繁榮的景觀,以促進增長、改善生計和維持生活(世界銀行)。由于污染、侵蝕和毀林等環境問題影響著世界,最貧窮的社區將受到最大的影響,因為他們受環境變化和破壞的影響最大,并且幾乎沒有資源幫助他們適應。世界銀行承諾解決環境退化問題,幫助確保環境可持續性,以幫助不僅改善環境,而且減少貧困,幫助改善許多人的生活。世界銀行集團的環境和自然資源小組幫助提供專門知識、技術援助和資金,幫助受貧困影響的國家,以期以創造就業機會、改善生計、改善生態系統的方式管理其土地、海洋和淡水自然資源;例如碳封存、授粉或水調節,以及減少污染,同時提高對氣候變化的適應能力,希望為所有人創造一個安全、清潔和繁榮的社區(世界銀行集團)
      Social Issues 社會問題
      Social issues are fought by social banking which focuses on satisfying the needs of the economy and society, while also considering one’s social, cultural, ecological and economic sustainability. According to the Institute for Social Banking, social banking is described as the provision of banking and financial services that consequently purses as a bank’s main objectives which in return will turn into a positive contribution to the potential of all human beings to develop in the present as well as in the future (Institute for Social Banking) Social Banks are defined by Benedikter by being a “bank with a conscience”. Social bank focus on investing in the community, provide help to those who are in need of help as well as support social, environmental and ethical agendas (Benedikter, 2011) Social banks try to close the gap in social issues that are focused around social issues within the banking industry and try to help by investing their money in endeavors that only promote the greater good of the society instead of for-profit, social banks’ main focus is on promoting human and environmental well-being and lend money for those projects for a purpose (Benedikter, 2011).  As research shows that since the 1990 banks were not interested in their own environmental situations or that of clients and we seeing changes in the field of the financial sectors such as environmental investments, loans, green banking, global banking, and social and ethical banking, social issues began to arise. As the economic .
      社會問題由社會銀行解決,社會銀行的重點是滿足經濟和社會的需求,同時考慮個人的社會、文化、生態和經濟可持續性。據社會銀行研究所稱,社會銀行被描述為提供銀行和金融服務,從而將其作為銀行的主要目標,反過來,這將成為對所有人在當前和未來發展潛力的積極貢獻(社會銀行研究所)。Benedikter將社會銀行定義為“有良知的銀行”。社會銀行專注于社區投資,為需要幫助的人提供幫助,并提供社會支持,環境和道德議程社會銀行試圖彌合社會問題上的差距,這些社會問題集中在銀行業內部的社會問題上,并試圖通過將資金投資于只促進社會更大利益而非營利的努力來提供幫助,社會銀行的主要重點是促進人類和環境福祉,并有目的地為這些項目提供貸款。研究表明,自1990年以來,銀行對其自身的環境狀況或客戶的環境狀況不感興趣,我們看到金融領域的變化,如環境投資、貸款、綠色銀行、全球銀行以及社會和道德銀行,社會問題開始出現。作為經濟。
      Empirical research since 1990 concluded that banks were not interested in their own environmental situation or that of their clients. We are witnessing certain changes and growing awareness in the field of financial sector like; environmental investment funds, loans, green banking, global banking, rural banking, agribanking, social banking, and ethical banking. The recent economic crisis caused millions of job losses. It will take years to get momentum back by major economies. As a result of this global crisis, social banking and social finance have become important trends among bank customers in the US and Europe. The crisis transformed social banks from niche institutions to large, publicly visible players. This is due to the growing level of awareness among a number of bank customers in Europe about social banking which is a less speculative, more responsible, ethical, and community-oriented. It is the modest way to deal with money than traditional banking. 
      自1990年以來的實證研究得出結論,銀行對自己或客戶的環境狀況不感興趣。我們正在見證金融領域的某些變化和日益增長的意識,例如;環境投資基金、貸款、綠色銀行、全球銀行、農村銀行、農業銀行、社會銀行和道德銀行。最近的經濟危機造成數百萬人失業。主要經濟體需要幾年才能恢復勢頭。由于這場全球危機,社會銀行和社會金融已成為美國和歐洲銀行客戶的重要趨勢。這場危機將社會銀行從利基機構轉變為大型、公開的參與者。這是因為歐洲許多銀行客戶對社交銀行的認識不斷提高,社交銀行是一種投機性更少、更負責任、更道德和更面向社區的銀行。與傳統銀行相比,這是一種適度的理財方式。
      Rating of the industry’s overall social responsiveness and its accomplishments in this area 行業整體社會反應能力及其在該領域的成就評級
       Social responsiveness refers to how businesses and their stakeholders interact with and manage their environments. The social responsiveness of a corporate accentuates the moral obligation that the said business has to society and is viewed on a mean-send continuum that can be shaped by public expectations of the responsibilities of an industry. My rating of the banking industry’s overall social responsiveness responsibilities. Generally speaking, these responsibilities are implied by the terms of the social contract, which legitimizes business as an institution with the expectation that it serve the greater good by generating commerce while adhering to society’s laws and ethical norms. From this perspective, corporations are in a dynamic relationship with society of which responsiveness is key.business as an institution with the expectation that it provides a service whilst adhering to society’s laws and ethical norms. From this perspective, businesses are in a dynamic relationship with society of which responsiveness is a key aspect.
      社會響應性是指企業及其利益相關者如何與環境互動和管理環境。企業的社會響應性強調了上述企業對社會的道德義務,并被視為一個中庸的連續統,該連續統可以由公眾對行業責任的期望形成。我對銀行業整體社會責任的評級。一般來說,這些責任是由社會契約的條款隱含的,社會契約使企業作為一個機構合法化,期望它通過創造商業,同時遵守社會法律和道德規范,為更大的利益服務。從這個角度來看,企業與社會之間存在著動態關系,其中反應能力是關鍵。企業作為一個機構,期望在遵守社會法律和道德規范的同時提供服務。從這個角度來看,企業與社會的關系是動態的,其中反應能力是一個關鍵方面。
      Conclusion 結論
      Saint Leo University’s core value definition of Respect is: “Animated in the spirit of Jesus Christ, we value all individuals’ unique talents, respect their dignity, and strive to foster their commitment to excellence in our work. Our community’s strength depends on the unity and diversity of our people, on the free exchange of ideas, and on learning, living, and working harmoniously” (Saint Leo University, n.d.). Employers should value all individuals and their talents while also fostering their needs in their new roles as a career woman or dual career partner.
      References 參考文獻
      Amadeo, K. (2018) Banking and How It Works-Can You Imagine a World Without Banks?
      Booth, P. (2011) The social role of banks is banking
      FactMonster.com (2018) A Brief History of US Banking
      Financial Web (ND) What is Ethical Banking?
      Osborne, J. (2016) Banks, and Sustainability: Why Addressing Stakeholders’ Issues Is Key for Trust
      SEB (2018) Our role in society
      US Bank (2018) Code of Ethics and Business Conduct
      World Bank Group (2018) Environment and Natural Resources
      The World Bank (2018) Who we are
      留學生作業在最后總結圣里奧大學對尊重的核心價值定義是:“我們本著耶穌基督的精神,珍視所有人的獨特才能,尊重他們的尊嚴,努力培養他們在工作中追求卓越的承諾。我們社區的力量取決于我們人民的團結和多樣性,取決于思想的自由交流,取決于學習、生活和和諧工作?!?。雇主應該重視所有個人及其才能,同時培養他們作為職業女性或雙重職業伙伴的新角色的需求。本站提供各國各專業留學生作業寫作指導服務,如有需要可咨詢本平臺。

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