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      Literature Review格式范文:Literature Review on Recruitment and Selection Process

      論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-10-15 14:47:49 來源:www.ourpropertyvalue.com 作者:留學作業網

      Literature Review格式范文-招聘和選拔過程的文獻綜述。本文是一篇留學生Literature Review寫作范文,主要內容是針對員工選拔是“收集和評估個人信息以提供就業機會的過程……”這一問題,通過文獻檢索和分析進行闡述。員工選擇是組織整體人員配置流程的一部分,還包括人力資源(HR)規劃、招聘和保留活動。通過人力資源規劃,組織預測其對具有特定知識、技能和能力的人員(KSA)的可能需求,并將其與內部或外部勞動力市場中此類人員的預期可用性進行比較。在人員配置的招聘階段,組織根據組織類型和所涉工作的性質,嘗試通過在組織內發布職位、發布廣告以吸引外部申請人、員工推薦以及許多其他方法與潛在的求職者建立聯系。當組織的招聘工作產生一批申請者時,員工選擇開始。在員工選拔過程中,公司會決定向哪些被招聘的候選人提供職位。下面就一起來參閱這篇留學生Literature Review文獻綜述寫作格式范文。

      Literature Review寫作格式范文Employee selection is the “process of collecting and evaluating information about an individual in order to extend an offer of employment ……(R.D. Gate wood and H.S. Field) Employee selection is part of the overall staffing process of the organization, which also includes human resource (HR) planning, recruitment, and retention activities. By doing human resource planning, the organization projects its likely demand for personnel with particular knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs), and compares that to the anticipated availability of such personnel in the internal or external labour markets. During the recruitment phase of staffing, the organization attempts to establish contact with potential job applicants by job postings within the organization, advertising to attract external applicants, employee referrals, and many other methods, depending on the type of organization and the nature of the job in question. Employee selection begins when a pool of applicants is generated by the organization’s recruitment efforts. During the employee selection process, a firm decides which of the recruited candidates will be offered a position.
      Effective employee selection is a critical component of a successful organization. How employees perform their jobs is a major factor in determining how successful an organization will be. Job performance is essentially determined by the ability of an individual to do a particular job and the effort the individual is willing to put forth in performing the job. Through effective selection, the organization can maximize the probability that its new employees will have the necessary KSAs to do the jobs they were hired to do. Thus, employee selection is one of the two major ways (along with orientation and training) to make sure that new employees have the abilities required to do their jobs. It also provides the base for other HR practices-such as effective job design, goal setting, and compensation-that motivate workers to exert the effort needed to do their jobs effectively, according to Gatewood and Field.
      有效的員工選拔是成功組織的關鍵組成部分。員工如何完成工作是決定一個組織成功與否的主要因素。工作績效本質上取決于個人完成特定工作的能力以及個人在執行工作時愿意付出的努力。通過有效的選擇,組織可以最大限度地提高新員工擁有必要的KSA來完成其受雇工作的可能性。因此,員工選拔是確保新員工具備完成工作所需能力的兩種主要方式之一(以及定向和培訓)。Gatewood and Field表示,它還為其他人力資源實踐提供了基礎,如有效的工作設計、目標設定和薪酬,以激勵員工努力有效地完成工作。
      Job applicants differ along many dimensions, such as educational and work experience, personality characteristics, and innate ability and motivation levels. The logic of employee selection begins with the assumption that at least some of these individual differences are relevant to a person’s suitability for a particular job. Thus, in employee selection the organization must:
      Determine the relevant individual differences (KSAs) needed to do the job and
      Identify and utilize selection methods that will reliably and validly assess the extent to which job applicants possess the needed KSAs. The organization must achieve these tasks in a way that does not illegally discriminate against any job applicants on the basis of race, colour, religion, sex, national origin, disability, or veteran’s status.
      求職者在許多方面都有所不同,例如教育和工作經驗、個性特征、天生能力和動機水平。員工選擇的邏輯始于這樣一個假設,即這些個體差異中至少有一部分與一個人對特定工作的適合性有關。因此,在選擇員工時,組織必須:             
      確定工作所需的相關個人差異(KSA),以及確定并使用能夠可靠有效地評估求職者擁有所需KSA程度的甄選方法。組織必須以不基于種族、膚色、宗教、性別、國籍、殘疾或退伍軍人身份非法歧視任何求職者的方式完成這些任務。
      An Overview of the Selection process:選擇過程概述
      Employee selection is itself a process consisting of several important stages, as shown in Exhibit 1. Since the organization must determine the individual KSAs needed to perform a job, the selection process begins with job analysis, which is the systematic study of the content of jobs in an organization. Effective job analysis tells the organization what people occupying particular jobs “do” in the course of performing their jobs. It also helps the organization determine the major duties and responsibilities of the job, as well as aspects of the job that are of minor or tangential importance to job performance. The job analysis often results in a document called the job description, which is a comprehensive document that details the duties, responsibilities, and tasks that make up a job. Because job analysis can be complex, time-consuming, and expensive, standardized job descriptions have been developed that can be adapted to thousands of jobs in organizations across the world. Two examples of such databases are the U.S. government’s Standard Occupational Classification (SOC), which has information on at least 821 occupations, and the Occupational Information Network, which is also known as O*NET. O*NET provides job descriptions for thousands of jobs.
      員工選擇本身是一個由幾個重要階段組成的過程,由于組織必須確定執行工作所需的個人KSA,因此選擇過程從工作分析開始,工作分析是對組織中工作內容的系統研究。有效的工作分析告訴組織從事特定工作的人在執行工作過程中“做”什么。它也有助于組織確定工作的主要職責和責任,以及工作中對工作績效具有次要或相切重要性的方面。工作分析通常會產生一個稱為工作描述的文檔,這是一個全面的文檔,詳細說明了組成工作的職責、責任和任務。由于工作分析可能復雜、耗時且昂貴,因此已經制定了標準化的工作描述,可適用于世界各地組織中的數千個工作。這類數據庫的兩個例子是美國政府的標準職業分類(SOC),其中至少有821個職業的信息,以及職業信息網絡,也稱為O*NET。O*NET為成千上萬的工作提供了工作描述。
      An understanding of the content of a job assists an organization in specifying the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to do the job. These KSAs can be expressed in terms of a job specification, which is an
      對工作內容的理解有助于組織指定完成工作所需的知識、技能和能力。這些KSA可以用作業規范來表示
      2.2 Main Responsibilities of HRM 人力資源管理的主要職責
      2.2.1 Getting the Best Employees 獲得最佳員工
      Workforce planning 勞動力規劃
      Specifying Jobs and Roles 指定作業和角色
      Recruiting 招聘
      Outsourcing 外包
      Screening Applicants 篩選申請人
      Staffing — Selecting (Hiring) New Employees. 人員配置-選擇(雇傭)新員工
      2.2.1.1 Workforce planning 勞動力規劃
      a) Objective of Workforce Planning 勞動力規劃目標
      Workforce planning is one of the most important activities in any organisation. It starts with analysis of the strategic position of the business. The results of this analysis then feed into a forecast of the required demand for labour by the organisation and how this is likely to be supplied. The final stage involves the creation and implementation of a human resources plan which aims to deliver the right number of the right people for the Organisation.
      勞動力規劃是任何組織中最重要的活動之一。首先分析企業的戰略地位。然后,該分析的結果將輸入組織所需勞動力需求的預測,以及可能的勞動力供應方式。最后一個階段涉及人力資源計劃的創建和實施,該計劃旨在為組織提供合適數量的合適人員。
      b) Strategy for workforce plan  勞動力計劃戰略
      The strategic position and requirement of the organisation have the most important influence on workforce planning:
      Organisation objectives and scope of activities: what are the objectives of the organisation? What products are to be sold, in which markets; using what kind of distribution?
      Organisation location – where is the organisation located? How are the various business units, divisions, functions distributed across the various locations? What specialist skills are essential in each location? What are the workforce implications of decisions on organisation location?
      Labour environment: what is happening to the size of the labour force? What key population and employment trends (e.g. the increasing numbers of people working on temporary or short-term contracts) affect the ability of the business to recruit staff? What provision needs to be made for employee pension; what employment legislation
      Timetables – to what extent does the strategic needs of the business require short-term changes in the workforce – or can change be achieved over a longer period. For example, are new retailing or distribution locations to be opened in the next 12 months that require staff?
      組織的戰略地位和要求對勞動力規劃具有最重要的影響:             
      組織目標和活動范圍:組織的目標是什么?銷售什么產品,在哪些市場;使用什么樣的分發?             
      組織位置–組織位于哪里?各個業務部門、部門和職能部門如何分布在各個地點?每個地點都需要哪些專業技能?組織位置決策對員工的影響是什么?    勞動環境:勞動力規模發生了什么變化?哪些關鍵的人口和就業趨勢(例如,簽訂臨時或短期合同的人數不斷增加)會影響企業招聘員工的能力?需要為員工養老金提供哪些準備金;什么樣的就業立法             
      時間表——企業的戰略需求在多大程度上需要勞動力的短期變化,或者可以在更長的時間內實現變化。例如,未來12個月是否會開設需要員工的新零售或分銷場所
      c) Forecasting Workforce Demand  預測勞動力需求
      Putting a good Human Resources plan together requires an organisation to make a reasonably accurate forecast of workforce size. Key factors to consider in this forecast are:
      Demand for existing and new products/projects
      Organisation disposals and product closures
      Introduction of new technology (e.g. new production equipment)
      Cost reduction programmes (most usually involve a reduction in staff numbers somewhere within the business)
      Changes to the business organisational structure
      Business acquisitions, joint ventures, strategic partnerships
      Forecasting Workforce Supply
      一個好的人力資源計劃需要一個組織對勞動力規模做出合理準確的預測。本預測中需要考慮的關鍵因素包括:             
      對現有和新產品/項目的需求             
      組織處置和產品關閉             
      引進新技術(如新生產設備)             
      成本降低計劃(通常包括減少企業內某個地方的員工人數)             
      企業組織結構的變化             
      企業收購、合資企業、戰略伙伴關系            
       預測勞動力供應
      The starting point for estimating supply is the existing workforce: an Organisation should take account of:
      Scheduled changes to the composition of the existing workforce (e.g. promotions; job rotation)
      Normal loss of workforce – e.g. through retirement, “normal” labour turnover
      Potential exceptional factors – e.g. actions of competitors that create problems of staff retention
      By comparing the forecast workforce demand and supply – it is possible to compile a forecast of net workforce size. This then needs to be compared with the strategic requirements for the organisation. The result is the “workforce gap” (which is a forecast of too few or too many workers). The role of HRM is to close the gap!
      HRM – Policies to Close the Workforce Gap
      估算供應量的起點是現有勞動力:組織應考慮:             
      現有勞動力構成的計劃變化(例如晉升;工作輪換)             
      勞動力的正常流失-例如通過退休、“正?!眲趧恿α鲃?nbsp;            
      潛在的例外因素–例如,競爭對手的行為會造成員工留用問題             
      通過比較預測勞動力需求和供應,可以編制勞動力凈規模預測。然后需要將其與組織的戰略要求進行比較。其結果是“勞動力缺口”(預測工人太少或太多)。人力資源管理的作用是縮小差距!             
      人力資源管理–縮小勞動力缺口的政策 
      The key HRM activities to manage the workforce gap comprise:
      Recruitment plans (how many people, where, what type, how)
      Training plans
      Redundancy plans
      Staff Retention Plans (how the business intends to keep the staff it wants to retain)      
      管理勞動力缺口的關鍵人力資源管理活動包括:             
      招聘計劃(人數、地點、類型、方式)             
      培訓計劃             
      冗余計劃             
      員工保留計劃(企業打算如何留住想要留住的員工)
      2.2.1.2 Specifying jobs and roles 指定作業和角色
      This phenomenon includes two processes; 這種現象包括兩個過程;
      Job specification 工作規范
      Job description 職位描述
      Job Specification 工作規范
      Derived from job analysis, it is a statement of employee characteristics and qualifications required for satisfactory performance of defined duties and tasks comprising a specific job or function. 
      它來源于工作分析,是對員工特征和資格的陳述,以圓滿履行規定的職責和任務,包括特定的工作或職能。
      A job specification describes the knowledge, skills, education, experience, and abilities organisation believes are essential to performing a particular job. The job specification is developed from the job analysis.
      工作規范描述了組織認為對執行特定工作至關重要的知識、技能、教育、經驗和能力。工作規范是根據工作分析制定的。
      A job specification cuts to the quick with organisation requirements whereas the job description defines the duties and requirements of an employee’s job in detail. The job specification provides detailed characteristics, knowledge, education, skills, and experience needed to perform the job, with an overview of the specific job requirements.
      工作規范以組織要求為切入點,而工作描述則詳細定義了員工工作的職責和要求。工作規范提供了執行工作所需的詳細特征、知識、教育、技能和經驗,并概述了具體的工作要求。          
      Job Description 職位描述 
      Job descriptions are essential. Job descriptions are required for recruitment so that organisation and the applicants can understand the role. Job descriptions are necessary for all people in the organisation. A job description defines a person’s role and accountability. Without a job description it is not possible for a person to properly commit to, or be held accountable for, a role.
      工作描述至關重要。招聘需要職位描述,以便組織和申請人能夠理解該職位。工作描述對組織中的所有人員都是必要的。工作描述定義了一個人的角色和責任。如果沒有工作描述,一個人就不可能正確地承擔一個角色,也不可能對這個角色負責。
      Smaller organisations commonly require staff and managers to cover a wider or more mixed range of responsibilities than in larger organisations (for example, the ‘office manager’ role can comprise financial, HR, stock-control, scheduling and other duties). Therefore in smaller organisations, job descriptions might necessarily contain a greater number of listed responsibilities, perhaps 15-16. However,
      whatever the circumstances, the number of responsibilities should not exceed this, or the job description becomes unwieldy and ineffective.
      與大型組織相比,小型組織通常要求員工和經理承擔更廣泛或更復雜的職責(例如,“辦公室經理”角色可以包括財務、人力資源、庫存控制、日程安排和其他職責)。因此,在較小的組織中,職位描述可能必然包含更多列出的職責,可能是15-16個。然而,無論在何種情況下,職責的數量都不應超過這個數量,否則職位描述就會變得笨拙和無效。
      Some feature in most job descriptions are as following; 大多數工作描述中的一些特征如下
      communicating ( How to communicate with upper and lower level of management from his/her level)溝通(如何從他/她的級別與上下管理層溝通) 
      Panning and organising.平移和組織
      Managing information and general administration support.管理信息和一般行政支持
      Monitoring and reporting.監測和報告
      Financial budgeting and control 財務預算和控制
      Producing things.生產物品
      Maintaining and repairing.維護和修理
      Quality control.質量控制
      Health and safety.健康與安全
      Using equipment and system.使用設備和系統
      Developing and creating things.開發和創造事物

      Importance of Job Description:工作描述的重要性:
      Job descriptions improve an organisation’s ability to manage people and roles in the following ways: 工作描述通過以下方式提高組織管理人員和角色的能力
      Clarifies organisation expectations for employees.明確組織對員工的期望
      Provides basis of measuring job performance 提供衡量工作績效的基礎
      Provides clear description of role for job candidates 為求職者提供清晰的角色描述
      Provides a structure and discipline for company to understand and structure all jobs and ensure necessary activities, duties and responsibilities are covered by one job or another
      為公司提供一個結構和紀律,以了解和組織所有工作,并確保一項或另一項工作涵蓋必要的活動、職責和責任
      Provides continuity of role parameters irrespective of manager interpretation 提供角色參數的連續性,而不考慮經理的解釋
      Enables pay and grading systems to be structured fairly and logically 使薪酬和評級系統結構合理合理
      Prevents arbitrary interpretation of role content and limit by employee and employer and manager 防止員工、雇主和經理對角色內容和限制的任意解釋
      Essential reference tool in issues of employee/employer dispute 員工/雇主爭議問題的基本參考工具
      Essential reference tool for discipline issues 學科問題的基本參考工具
      Provides important reference points for training and development areas 為培訓和發展領域提供重要參考點
      Provides neutral and objective reference points for appraisals, performance reviews and counselling 為評估、績效評估和咨詢提供中立客觀的參考點
      Enables formulation of skill set and behaviour set requirements per role 能夠制定每個角色的技能集和行為集要求
      Enables organisation to structure and manage roles in a uniform way, thus increasing efficiency and effectiveness of recruitment, training and development, organisational structure, work flow and activities, customer service, etc
      使組織能夠以統一的方式組織和管理角色,從而提高招聘、培訓和發展、組織結構、工作流程和活動、客戶服務等的效率和效力
      Enables factual view (as opposed to instinctual) to be taken by employees and managers in career progression and succession planning
      使員工和經理能夠在職業發展和繼任規劃中采用事實觀點(而非直覺觀點)

      Job Description Components:工作描述組成部分:
      Job Title 職位名稱
      Based at (Business Unit, Section – if applicable) 總部位于(業務部門,部門-如適用)
      Position reports to (Line Manager title, location, and Functional Manager, location if matrix management structure) 職位報告對象(直線經理職稱、地點和職能經理、地點,如果是矩陣管理結構)
      Job Purpose Summary (ideally one sentence) 工作目的總結(最好是一句話)
      Key Responsibilities and Accountabilities, (or ‘Duties’. 8-15 numbered points) 關鍵職責和責任(或“職責”,8-15分編號)
      Dimensions/Territory/Scope/Scale indicators (the areas to which responsibilities extend and the scale of responsibilities – staff, customers, territory, products, equipment, premises, etc) 維度/地域/范圍/規模指標(責任范圍和責任范圍-員工、客戶、地域、產品、設備、場所等)
      Date and other relevant internal references 日期和其他相關內部參考
      Hiring:招聘
      Organisation basically has two main resources to get Human resources 組織基本上有兩種主要資源來獲取人力資源 
      Internal Promotion 內部晉升
      Recruitment 招聘
      Outsourcing 外包  
      Internal Promotions: 內部晉升
      In this scenario existing employees of the organisation are promoted to fill the required place in the organisation.
      在這種情況下,組織的現有員工將被提升,以填補組織中所需的職位。
      Recruitment:招聘
      In this case organisation takes new employees in the organisation to fill the vacant places.
      在這種情況下,組織需要組織中的新員工來填補空缺。
      Outsourcing:外包
      Outsourcing refers to a company those contracts with another company to provide services.
      外包是指一家公司與另一家公司簽訂合同提供服務。
      Recruitment and Selection:招聘和選拔
      Recruitment is the process of identifying that the organisation needs to employ someone up to the point at which application forms for the post have arrived at the organisation.
      招聘是一個確定組織需要雇用到該職位的申請表到達組織時為止的人員的過程。              
      Employee selection is the “process of collecting and evaluating information about an individual in order to extend an offer of employment (R.D. Gate wood and H.S. Field) Employee selection is part of the overall staffing process of the organization, which also includes human resource (HR) planning, recruitment, and retention activities. By doing human resource planning, the organization projects its likely demand for personnel with particular knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs), and compares that to the anticipated availability of such personnel in the internal or external labour markets. During the recruitment phase of staffing, the organization attempts to establish contact with potential job applicants by job postings within the organization, advertising to attract external applicants, employee referrals, and many other methods, depending on the type of organization and the nature of the job in question. Employee selection begins when a pool of applicants is generated by the organization’s recruitment efforts. During the employee selection process, a firm decides which of the recruited candidates will be offered a position.
      員工選擇是“收集和評估個人信息以提供就業機會的過程,員工選擇是組織整體人員配置過程的一部分,也包括人力資源計劃、招聘和保留活動。通過人力資源規劃,組織預測其對具有特定知識、技能和能力的人員的可能需求,并將其與內部或外部勞動力市場中此類人員的預期可用性進行比較。在人員配置的招聘階段,組織根據組織類型和所涉工作的性質,嘗試通過在組織內發布職位、發布廣告以吸引外部申請人、員工推薦以及許多其他方法與潛在的求職者建立聯系。當組織的招聘工作產生一批申請者時,員工選擇開始。在員工選拔過程中,公司會決定向哪些被招聘的候選人提供職位。
      Effective employee selection is a critical component of a successful organization. How employees perform their jobs is a major factor in determining how successful an organization will be. Job performance is essentially determined by the ability of an individual to do a particular job and the effort the individual is willing to put forth in performing the job. Through effective selection, the organization can maximize the probability that its new employees will have the necessary KSAs to do the jobs they were hired to do. Thus, employee selection is one of the two major ways (along with orientation and training) to make sure that new employees have the abilities required to do their jobs. It also provides the base for other HR practices-such as effective job design, goal setting, and compensation-that motivate workers to exert the effort needed to do their jobs effectively…….
      有效的員工選拔是成功組織的關鍵組成部分。員工如何完成工作是決定組織成功程度的一個主要因素。工作績效基本上取決于個人完成特定工作的能力以及個人在完成工作時愿意付出的努力。通過有效的甄選,組織可以最大限度地提高新員工擁有必要的KSA來完成其受雇工作的可能性。因此,員工甄選是確保新員工具備完成其工作所需能力的兩種主要方式之一(以及定向和培訓)。它還為其他人力資源實踐提供了基礎,如有效的工作設計、目標設定和薪酬,以激勵員工發揮有效工作所需的努力……。
      Organisational document that details what is required to successfully perform a given job. The necessary KSAs are called job requirements, which is simply means they are thought to be necessary to perform the job. Job requirements are expressed in terms of desired education or training, work experience, specific aptitudes or abilities, and in many other ways. Care must be taken to ensure that the job requirements are based on the actual duties and responsibilities of the job and that they do not include irrelevant requirements that may discriminate against some applicants. For example, many organizations have revamped their job descriptions and specifications in the years since the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act to ensure that these documents contain only job-relevant content.
      詳細說明成功執行給定工作所需的內容的組織文件。必要的KSA稱為工作要求,這只是意味著它們被認為是執行工作所必需的。工作要求以期望的教育或培訓、工作經驗、特定的能力或能力以及許多其他方式表示。必須注意確保工作要求基于工作的實際職責和責任,并且不包括可能歧視某些申請人的無關要求。例如,自《美國殘疾人法案》通過以來的幾年里,許多組織都修改了他們的工作描述和規范,以確保這些文件只包含與工作相關的內容。
      Validity of selection methods 選擇方法的有效性
      Validity refers to the quality of a measure that exists when the measure assesses a construct. In the selection context, validity refers to the appropriateness, meaningfulness, and usefulness of the inferences made about applicants during the selection process. It is concerned with the issue of whether applicants will actually perform the job as well as expected based on the inferences made during the selection process. The closer the applicants’ actual job performances match their expected performances, the greater the validity of the selection process.
      有效性是指度量評估結構時存在的度量質量。在甄選語境中,有效性是指在甄選過程中對申請人作出的推論的適當性、意義和有用性。它關注的問題是,根據甄選過程中的推論,申請人是否會實際完成工作并達到預期效果。申請人的實際工作表現與預期表現越接近,甄選過程的有效性就越高。
      Selection methods 選擇方法
      A Organisation should use selection methods that reliably and accurately measure the needed qualifications. The reliability of a measure refers to its consistency. It is defined as “the degree of self-consistency among the scores earned by an individual.” Reliable evaluations are consistent across both people and time. Reliability is maximized when two people evaluating the same candidate provide the same ratings, and when the ratings of a candidate taken at two different times are the same. When selection scores are unreliable, their validity is diminished. Some of the factors affecting the reliability of selection measures are:
      Emotional and physical state of the candidate. Reliability suffers if candidates are particularly nervous during the assessment process.
      Lack of rapport with the administrator of the measure. Reliability suffers if candidates are “turned off” by the interviewer and thus do not “show their stuff” during the interview.
      組織應使用可靠、準確衡量所需資質的選擇方法。衡量標準的可靠性是指其一致性。它被定義為“個人所得分數之間的自我一致性程度”??煽康脑u估在人與時間之間都是一致的。當兩個人對同一候選人進行評估時提供相同的評分,并且兩個不同時間對候選人的評分相同時,可靠性最大化。當選擇分數不可靠時,其有效性會降低。影響選擇措施可靠性的一些因素包括:             
      候選人的情緒和身體狀態。如果考生在評估過程中特別緊張,可靠性就會受到影響。             
      與措施管理人缺乏密切關系。如果面試官對應聘者“不感興趣”,從而在面試中不“展示自己的東西”,那么可靠性就會受到影響。
      Inadequate knowledge of how to respond to a measure. Reliability suffers if candidates are asked questions that are vague or confusing.
      Individual differences among respondents. If the range or differences in scores on the attribute measured by a selection device is large, that means the device can reliably distinguish among people.
      對如何應對措施的知識不足。如果應聘者被問到模糊或令人困惑的問題,可靠性就會受到影響。             
      受訪者之間的個體差異。如果選擇設備測量的屬性得分范圍或差異較大,這意味著該設備能夠可靠地區分人。
      Question difficulty. Questions of moderate difficulty produce the most reliable measures. If questions are too easy, many applicants will give the correct answer and individual differences are lessened; if questions are too difficult, few applicants will give the correct answer and, again, individual differences are lessened.
      問題難度。中等難度的問題產生最可靠的措施。如果問題太簡單,許多申請人會給出正確的答案,個人差異會減少;如果問題太難,很少有申請人會給出正確答案,而且個人差異也會減少。
      Length of measure. As the length of a measure increases, its reliability also increases. For example, an interviewer can better gauge an applicant’s level of interpersonal skills by asking several questions, rather than just one or two.
      Up to this point, our discussion has assumed that an employer needs to validate each of its:
      Studies summarizing a selection measure’s validity for similar jobs in other settings.
      Data showing the similarity between the jobs for which the validity evidence is reported and the job in the new employment setting.
      Data showing the similarity between the selection measures in the other studies composing the validity evidence and those measures to be used in the new employment setting.
      測量長度。隨著測量長度的增加,其可靠性也會增加。例如,面試官可以通過問幾個問題而不是一兩個問題來更好地衡量應聘者的人際交往能力。         到目前為止,我們的討論假設雇主需要驗證其每一項:             
      總結了在其他環境中類似工作的選擇措施有效性的研究。             
      顯示報告有效性證據的工作與新就業環境中的工作之間相似性的數據。             
      數據表明構成有效性證據的其他研究中的選擇措施與新就業環境中使用的措施之間的相似性。       
      Making final selection:做出最終選擇
      The extensiveness and complexity of selection processes vary greatly depending on factors such as the nature of the job, the number of applicants for each opening, and the size of the organization. A typical way of applying selection methods to a large number of applicants for a job requiring relatively high levels of KSAs would be the following:
      Use application blanks, resumes, and short interviews to determine which job applicants meet the minimum requirements for the job. If the number of applicants is not too large, the information provided by applicants can be verified with reference and/or background checks.
      Use extensive interviews and appropriate testing to determine which of the minimally qualified job candidates have the highest degree of the KSAs required by the job.
      甄選過程的廣泛性和復雜性因工作性質、每個空缺職位的申請人數以及組織規模等因素的不同而有很大差異。對于需要較高KSA水平的工作,將選拔方法應用于大量申請人的典型方式如下:             
      使用申請表、簡歷和簡短面試來確定哪些求職者符合該職位的最低要求。如果申請人人數不太多,可以通過參考和/或背景調查核實申請人提供的信息。
      通過廣泛的面試和適當的測試,確定哪位最低資格的求職者擁有該職位所需的最高KSA。
      Make contingent offers to one or more job finalists as identified by Step 2. Job offers may be contingent upon successful completion of a drug test or other forms of back-ground checks. General medical exams can only be given after a contingent offer is given.
      向第2步確定的一名或多名最終求職者提供臨時聘用。工作聘用可能取決于成功完成藥物測試或其他形式的背景調查。只有在給出或有報價后才能進行一般體檢。本站提供各國各專業留學生Literature Review文獻綜述寫作指導服務,如有需要可咨詢本平臺。


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