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      社會學Essay格式:Suicide in Northern Canada: A Sociological Perspective

      論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-01-21 13:10:27 來源:www.ourpropertyvalue.com 作者:留學作業網

      本文是社會學專業的留學生Essay范例,題目是Suicide in Northern Canada: A Sociological Perspective(加拿大北部的自殺:一個社會學的視角)”,日益嚴重的自殺問題一直困擾著加拿大北部的一個土著社區。由于許多社會和經濟問題,不同的土著社區自殺和企圖自殺的人數激增。在這篇文章中,我的目的是對比埃米爾·迪爾凱姆和卡爾·馬克思的兩種社會學視角,探討加拿大北部的土著人口如何以及為什么會有自殺危機。

      I. Introduction介紹

      A growing suicide problem has plagued an indigenous community in northern Canada. Different indigenous communities have had a spike in suicide and attempted suicide due to many social and economic issues. In this essay, I aim to contrast two sociological perspectives of Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx in relation to how and why the native population in northern Canada is having a suicide crisis.

       社會學Essay范例

      II. Suicide in Northern Canada2加拿大北部的自殺

      In the Pimicikamak Cree Nation in northern Canada there have been six deaths from suicide within the first months of 2016. In addition to these there have been one hundred and forty attempted suicides within the same indigenous community. According to the New York Times article, [a] Wave of Indigenous Suicides Leaves Canadian Town Appealing for Help,author Liam Stack claims that this wave of suicides is attributed to a faulty relationship between the Canadian government and the native community. The area residents live in extreme poverty and have an unemployment rate of eighty-five percent. Moreover, the native communitiespoverty leads to a sense of alienation from the non-native southern Canadians who live a more comfortable life. The community and other native communities in northern Canada receive no government investments and do not have access to employment. In addition, there are no hospitals and mental health institutions for hundreds of miles away from the communities. The community, only [has one] fill-time mental health worker [who] has no medical or psychological training, just a bachelors degree in social work.[1] Stack claims that the lack of government cooperation with the communities and trauma from colonialism is what led up to this epidemic. In retrospect, the natives were forced into an alien culture and were stripped of their ancient culture.

      在加拿大北部的Pimicikamak Cree國家,2016年的頭幾個月就有6人死于自殺。此外,在同一土著社區內還發生了140起自殺未遂事件。根據《紐約時報》的文章,“[]波原住民自殺離開加拿大鎮尋求幫助,”作者利亞姆·斯塔克聲稱,這波自殺浪潮歸因于加拿大政府和原住民社區之間的錯誤關系。該地區的居民生活極端貧困,失業率高達85%。此外,土著社區的貧困導致了一種疏離感,與生活更舒適的非土著南加拿大人。加拿大北部的社區和其他土著社區沒有政府投資,也沒有就業機會。此外,數百英里以外的社區沒有醫院和精神衛生機構。在這個社區,“只有一個沒有接受過醫學或心理學培訓的全職心理健康工作者,只有一個社會工作的學士學位。" [1] Stack聲稱,政府與社區缺乏合作以及殖民主義造成的創傷是導致這一流行病的原因?;叵肫饋?,當地人被迫進入一種陌生的文化,他們的古老文化被剝奪了。

       

      III. Solidarity and Anomic Suicide3團結和失范自殺

      From a historical point of view, Emile Durkheim would argue that the spike in suicides in northern Canada is a result of the historical transformation from a more primitive mechanical society to [a] more organic society.[2] Durkheim claimed that a mechanical society is attached together by the common duty that everybody merely does the same type of things. In a mechanical society, all individuals would have a job to fulfill, such as hunting or gathering. This mechanical solidarity would result in individuals having a place in society and feeling a sense of belonging. It is evident that before the Americas were colonized, the natives lived in a mechanical solidarity system that consisted in every individual having a role. These determined roles focused on the collective and did not emphasize individualism. In contrast, once a society has a larger amount of people with more interaction, what Durkheim termed dynamic density, then that society will convert to an organic solidarity, Additionally, a division of labor is a factor in this social paradigm. The society becomes more efficient in production because the division of labor demands that the majority of individuals become specialized at a certain task. He believed that anomie happens in an organic society, which is defined asA sense associated with organic solidarity, of not knowing what one is expected to do; of being adrift in society without any clear and secure moorings.[3]

      從歷史的角度來看,埃米爾?迪爾凱姆(Emile Durkheim)會認為,加拿大北部自殺率的激增是“從一個更原始的機械社會向一個更有機社會的歷史轉變”的結果。迪爾凱姆聲稱一個機械社會是由一種共同的責任聯系在一起的,每個人只是做同樣類型的事情。在一個機械社會中,所有人都有工作要做,比如打獵或采集。這種機械的團結將導致個人在社會中有一席之地,并感到歸屬感。很明顯,在美洲被殖民之前,土著人生活在一個機械的團結系統中,每個人都有自己的角色。這些堅定的角色注重集體,不強調個人主義。相反,一旦一個社會有更多的人進行更多的互動,迪爾凱姆稱之為動態密度,那么這個社會就會轉化為有機團結,此外,勞動分工是這個社會范式中的一個因素。社會在生產方面變得更加高效,因為勞動分工要求大多數人在某一任務上專業化。他認為,社會反常發生在一個有機社會中,它被定義

      一種與有機團結有關的感覺,不知道自己應該做什么;在社會中漂泊,沒有任何明確而安全的寄托

       

      Indeed, the native population in northern Canada has become a victim of organic solidarity. The lack of government resources and jobs leads individuals to feel alienated. These individuals do not have a place in modern society because of the lack of jobs and the improper assimilation that was inhumane in the first place, and did not fully incorporate the natives into the European Canadian society. In Durkheims book Suicide, he argued that people a more likely to kill themselves when they do not know what is expected of them.[4] He created categories of suicide that explain why suicide happens. One of his four types of suicide is termed anomic suicide, which he defined as:

      事實上,加拿大北部的土著居民已經成為有機團結的受害者。政府資源和工作的缺乏導致個人感到疏離。這些人在現代社會中沒有立足之地,因為他們缺乏工作機會,以及一開始就是非人道的不當同化,也沒有將土著人完全融入歐洲加拿大社會。在迪爾凱姆的《自殺》一書中,“他認為,當人們不知道外界對他們的期望時,他們更有可能自殺。他創造了自殺分類來解釋為什么自殺會發生。他的四種自殺類型之一被稱為反常自殺,他將其定義為:

       

      People are more likely to kill themselves when they do not know what is expected of them, where regulation is low, and they are largely free to run wild. This mad pursuit is likely to prove unsatisfying and, as a result, a higher percentage of people in such a situation are apt to commit this type of suicide.[5]

      當人們不知道人們對他們的期望是什么,監管水平低,而且他們在很大程度上可以自由放任時,他們更有可能自殺。這種瘋狂的追求很可能證明是不令人滿意的,因此,處于這種情況的人傾向于采取這種自殺方式的比例更高

       社會學Essay怎么寫

      It is evident that the general suicides in northern Canada can be linked to anomic suicide. The individuals do not have access to jobs or resources and live in a society that constantly promotes individualism. The lack of not knowing what to do with oneself, could lead to many existential dilemmas that repressed societies must confront.

      很明顯,加拿大北部的一般自殺與失范自殺有關。個人得不到工作或資源,生活在一個不斷提倡個人主義的社會中。不知道自己該做什么,可能會導致許多受壓抑的社會必須面對的生存困境。

       

      IV. Class Conflict四、階級沖突

      In a contrasting sociological view, one could link a spike of suicides in northern Canada to the alienation of individuals from class conflict. Karl Marx argued that under capitalism, individuals become alienated from their family, friends, and coworkers, because of a constant conflict between the workers and capitalists. The workers or proletariat have a subsistent wage that merely lets them survive, the majority of natives living in northern Canada do not even have jobs because of an 85% unemployment rate. The natives could be labeled as the lumpenproletariat, or individuals that are below the workers, who may be constantly unemployed. While the lumpenproletariat is below the workers, they still are affected by the clash between the proletariat and bourgeoisie. The capitalists are constantly seeking ways to take advantage of surplus wages, which causes a conflict between the workers. The exploitation of surplus value leads to less resources for communities such as the northern native Canadians. The lack of resources due to exploitation can be compounded with Durkheims organic solidarity, and anomic suicide to highlight the spike in suicides. Additionally, bourgeoisie dominant ideology dictates what norms/mores are to be assimilated by a community. These assimilations have created a cultural genocide for the indigenous population.

      從社會學的角度來看,人們可以將加拿大北部自殺事件的激增與階級沖突中的個人疏離聯系起來。馬克思認為,在資本主義制度下,由于工人和資本家之間不斷發生沖突,個人與家人、朋友和同事之間變得疏遠。工人或無產階級只有勉強維持生存的工資,生活在加拿大北部的大多數人甚至沒有工作,因為85%的失業率。當地人可能會被貼上“流氓無產階級”的標簽,或者是低于工人的個人,他們可能會一直失業。呆頭呆腳的無產階級雖然在工人之下,但他們仍然受到無產階級和資產階級沖突的影響。資本家不斷地尋找利用剩余工資的方法,這導致了工人之間的沖突。剩余價值的開發導致諸如加拿大北部原住民等社區的資源減少。由于剝削而導致的資源匱乏與迪爾凱姆的有機團結和反常的自殺相結合,凸顯了自殺的高峰。此外,資產階級的主導意識形態決定了什么樣的規范/習俗可以被一個社區同化。這些同化造成了對土著居民的文化滅絕。

       

      V. Conclusion結論

      The indigenous of northern Canada have seen a spike in suicide because of anomic suicide and the sense of not belonging or knowing what to do in an organic solidarity paradigm. The rise in suicide can also be linked to the class conflict between the capitalists and the workers. Although, the majority of the natives are unemployed, they still are affected by the dominant ideology which dictates the norms that they were forced to assimilate.

      加拿大北部的土著居民看到了自殺的高峰,因為失范自殺和不歸屬感的感覺,或者不知道在有機團結模式中該做什么。自殺率的上升也與資本家和工人之間的階級沖突有關。雖然大多數土著居民失業,但他們仍然受到主導意識形態的影響,這種意識形態規定了他們被迫同化的規范。

       

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