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      心理學Essay參考案例:Explanation of How the Brain Works and How Changes can affect Behaviour

      論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-02-07 09:22:37 來源:www.ourpropertyvalue.com 作者:留學作業網

      本文是心理學專業的Essay范例,題目是Explanation of How the Brain Works and How Changes can affect Behaviour(解釋大腦如何工作和變化如何影響行為)”,第一個因素是神經解剖學,研究大腦的解剖和神經結構。Raine等人(1997)的證據包括對41名殺人犯的研究,并將其與41名對照組進行PET掃描;這表明兇手大腦中控制情緒和推理的前額皮質(緊急剎車)缺乏活動。這類研究的優勢在于它是科學的,著眼于因果關系,并能導致有效的治療。然而,PorrinoLyons(2000)做了一項關于前額皮質的研究,表明可能還有其他原因導致人缺乏控制。這可能涉及社會和環境問題,或長期使用可卡因等毒品。神經解剖學讓我們對活生生的大腦對精神疾病和反社會行為有了更深入的了解,但我們不能僅僅依賴這種科學形式,因為它只是拼圖的一部分。

      This approach tries to explain how the brain works and how changes in structure and function can affect some ones behaviour. 心理學Essay范例

      The first factor is Neuroanatomy which studies the brains anatomy and neural structures. Evidence by Raine et al (1997) included a study of 41 murderers and compared them with 41 control subjects by PET scans; this showed a lack of activity in the prefrontal cortex of the murderers brains which controls emotions and reasoning (emergency brake). The strength of this type of study is that it is scientific, looking at cause and effect and can result in effective treatment. However, Porrino and Lyons (2000) did a study on the prefrontal cortex and showed there may be other causes for the persons lack of control. This could involve social and environmental issues or prolonged drug use such as cocaine. Neuroanatomy has given us a greater understanding of a living brain both into mental illness, and anti-social behaviour, but we cannot just rely on this form of science as it is only part of the jigsaw.

       

      Another theory is brain Biochemistry Rivers of the mind(Rita Carter1998); which looks at the effect that chemicals, such as hormones or neurotransmitters have on mood and behaviour. One of these neurotransmitters, Dopamine, is involved with behaviour and emotions. Wise and Stein (1973) studied schizophrenia in patients who had died leading to the Dopamine Hypothesis; that schizophrenia is thought to be the result of overstimulation of Dopamine (D2) receptor in the mesolimbic and mesocortical systems. This suggested that schizophrenia can be treated by chemicals not taking into account any other approaches. However, the individual is not helped to take responsibility for their own actions. This may also make the person feel alienated by a purely biological prognosis.

      另一個理論是大腦生物化學的“思想的河流”(Rita Carter1998);該研究著眼于化學物質,如激素或神經遞質對情緒和行為的影響。其中一種神經遞質多巴胺與行為和情緒有關。WiseStein(1973)研究了那些因“多巴胺假說”而死亡的精神分裂癥患者;精神分裂癥被認為是中腦邊緣和中腦皮質系統多巴胺(D2)受體過度刺激的結果。這表明,精神分裂癥可以用化學藥物治療,而不考慮其他任何方法。然而,這并不能幫助個人為自己的行為負責。這也可能使人感到被純粹的生物學預后疏遠。

       

      Biochemical research has made remarkable improvements in mental health and anti-social behaviour through drug treatment; but dependency can lead to problems. This can be countered by naturally increasing feel goodchemicals such as Serotonin through healthy eating and exercise rather than traditional drug therapy (M.Copson 2007).

       

      Infection may also change someones behaviour through its effect on the brain. A paper by S Barondes (1990) reported that in the 20 Century half the patients in psychiatric hospitals had a disorder called Dementia Paralytica. Henry (1941) investigated this and found a connection with a late manifestation of syphilis. Treatment came through penicillin and the disease and associated dementia was eradicated.

      感染還可能通過對大腦的影響改變某人的行為。S Barondes(1990)的一篇論文報道,在20世紀,精神病醫院里一半的病人都患有一種叫做麻痹性癡呆的疾病。亨利(1941)對此進行了調查,并發現這與梅毒的晚期表現有關。通過青霉素的治療,這種疾病和相關的癡呆被根除了。

       

      This case is a strong argument for the fact that one diagnosis does not mean a final solution. Further investigation by other approaches showed that what they thought was a mental illness was in fact the result of infection. This case would have been easy to solve if at the time we had technology such as PET scans like those researched by D. Geffen (University of California 2006) to identify that they didnt have dementia. There are not many clear links between infection and behaviour. This may be due to the fact that modern medicine quickly eradicates infection before it becomes a mental problem.

       

      A further factor is Genetics; the study of hereditary traits and how they affect behaviour. Studies by E Viding et al (2005) on over 3600 twin pairs showed behaviour problems in psychopathic children was due to 80% genetic hereditary influence. Genetic diagnosis like this is very scientific and can be backed up by data and evidence from studies. The fact that we can study twins with the same DNA makes results look conclusive. However, Paul Bennett (2003) made the point that, if parents treated them exactly the same, they could be influenced by environmental factors and not solely by genes. This approach also does not account for free will, social influence and reinforcement, especially between very close identical twins.

      進一步的因素是遺傳;對遺傳特征及其如何影響行為的研究。E Viding等人(2005)3600多對雙胞胎的研究表明,精神病兒童的行為問題80%是由于遺傳影響。像這樣的基因診斷是非??茖W的,可以得到研究數據和證據的支持。我們可以研究具有相同DNA的雙胞胎,這一事實使研究結果看起來很有說服力。然而,Paul Bennett(2003)指出,如果父母對待他們完全一樣,他們可能會受到環境因素的影響,而不僅僅是基因。這種方法也沒有考慮到自由意志、社會影響和強化,特別是在非常接近的同卵雙胞胎之間。

       

      Lastly, Evolution, also known as Neo Darwinism believes that we have dormant animal instincts in our sub-conscious mind, explaining some anti-social behaviours or phobias. Rita Carter (1998) writes how homo-sapiens became stronger than Neanderthals because they had developed greater awareness of their environment and better survival instincts such as the fear of spiders and heights. These factors may be why today certain people have the same fears and lose control when their sub-conscious mind takes over. However, some fears may have been learned by association and been influenced by the parent, creating a phobia in the mind by reinforcement of the fear. Many behaviours classed as anti-social, such as male promiscuity or racism were probably once of benefit and still exist in our brains (R. Carter 1998). Some may be down to social influence but there is a strong case for their evolutionary link.

       

      Psychodynamic Approach

      The psychodynamic approach was mainly initiated by Sigmund Freud. His research proposed three theories.

       

      His Theory of the Unconsciousdescribed three levels; the conscious mind, being only the small amount we perceive to know at that moment in time. The pre-conscious would be something that we are aware of but not conscious of. The unconscious mind is what we are unaware of and out of the reach of the conscious mind. Freud believed that the unconscious mind controlled much of our behaviour and actions (R. Gross 2005).

      他的《無意識理論》描述了三個層次;意識,只是我們在那一刻感知到的一小部分。前意識是我們意識到但沒有意識到的東西。潛意識是我們沒有意識到的,也超出了意識的范圍。弗洛伊德認為,潛意識控制著我們的大部分行為和行動(R. Gross 2005)。

       

      This theory came about after the treatment of Anna Oby Freud and Breuer (1880). It showed a girl who suffered an illness for over two years which resulted in a series of physical and psychological disturbances; there were no signs of biological illness. Freud and Breuer treated Bertha with psychoanalytical techniques and cured her symptoms (S. Freud 1909). However, it may have been due to a biological reason such as epilepsy as described by Orr-Andrawes (1987).

       

      Freud carried on with this research and came up with the Theory of Personality, which had three basic components, the Id, Ego and Superego. The Id is driven by basic instincts of aggression and sex; the pleasure principle. The Superego on the other end of the scale is one of controlling desires. The Ego has the role of balancing the Id and Superego out. If there is an imbalance of these three personalities, there could be a situation of mental health problems. With the Id it could result in animal behaviour or sexual aggression and with the Superego this could lead to anxiety or neurosis.

       

      This leads to our childhood development; Freuds Theory of Psychosexual Developmentwhich has five stages. The first stage is known as oral, where a child receives pleasure from the area of the mouth. At this point the child is in Id personality. The second anal stage has the child finding pleasure through anal means; here the child develops Ego. Further stages are phallic (3-5 years) which involves the Oedipus complex and develops the Superego. From 5-puberty is the latent stage moving onto the genital stage where the sexual Id returns in adolescence (P. Bennett 2003). Freud believed that if a child did not progress through these stages that they would develop behaviour problems. However, he was unable to predict behaviour from this theory and only used adult case studies, rather than looking at children (K. Cherry Psychological Guide 2010).

       

      Freuds ideas had a great impact on Psychology and are still used today. Anna Oand Little Hans gave credible support to Freuds theories and his approach helped causes of mental disorder with no physical or biological symptoms. However, Freuds theories were not in a controlled environment and were open to bias and lacked scientific support. Freud was on cocaine at the time and his theories are too deterministic; not taking into account the ability of free will.

       

      Behavioural Approach

      This approach believes behaviour is learnt by our experiences, association or environmental influences.

       

      Classical Conditioning is known as stimulus-response learning. Ivan Pavlov (1901) studied dogssalivation. He noticed dogs started to salivate when food entered the room. He rang a bell when giving the dog food. He then took away the food on later visits and just rang the bell. The dog still produced saliva. This proved the dog had learnt that the bell represented feeding time; a conditioning reflex. The neutral stimulus (the bell) had become a conditioned stimulus (P. Bennett 2003). This at first seemed the solution to changing behaviour, but after time if no reward was given the behaviour returned back to pre-conditioned state.

      經典條件反射被稱為刺激-反應學習。伊凡·巴甫洛夫(1901)研究了狗的唾液分泌。他注意到當食物進入房間時,狗開始流口水。他給狗喂食物時按鈴。后來他又把食物拿走,按了門鈴。狗還在分泌唾液。這證明狗已經學會了,鈴聲代表喂食時間;一個條件反射。中性刺激()已經成為條件刺激(P. Bennett 2003)。起初,這似乎是改變行為的解決方案,但經過一段時間后,如果不給予獎勵,行為就會回到預設狀態。

       

      In the case of Operant Conditioning Skinner (1953) designed a puzzle box for a rat or pigeon. Skinners analysis of behaviour was the ABC of operant conditioning:

       

      Antecedents: the stimulus conditions, such as a light going on when a lever is pressed.

      Behaviours: operants, such as pressing the lever

      Consequences: what happens as a result; reinforcement or punishment? (R. Gross 2005)

      He showed that behaviour can be guided by reward or punishment; rewarded behaviour will increase in frequency, where as punished behaviour will not be repeated (P. Bennett 2003).

       

      Finally, Social Learning is by association from other people or environment. This can be shown with individuals imitating their role models, such as the media influencing peoples appearance through magazines with slim models getting paid lots of money and gaining high stature. This may have caused eating disorders in females, revolving around identity and body image (Gordon 2001 from R. Gross 2005). However, eating disorders can be a result of a number of factors such as genetics in twin studies so it is not necessarily that simple (A J Holland 1984).

      最后,社會學習是通過來自他人或環境的聯想。這可以通過個人模仿他們的榜樣表現出來,比如媒體通過雜志影響人們的外表,苗條的模特得到了很多錢,獲得了很高的身材。這可能會導致女性飲食失調,圍繞著身份和身體形象(Gordon 2001, R. Gross 2005)。然而,在對雙胞胎的研究中,飲食失調可能是許多因素的結果,比如遺傳,所以并不一定那么簡單(a J Holland 1984)。

       

      In conclusion, the behavioural approach has provided strong counter arguments to the nature side of the nature-nurture debate and behaviourists have produced many practical applications, some of which have been very effective. It can be argued that behaviourists ignore innate biases in learning due to evolution and inherited factors and that their research was all in scientific laboratories and had no environmental considerations.

       

      Cognitive Approach

      Cognitive thinking involves conscious mental processes like a computer. The brain organises and manipulates information from daily life. This can be seen in the cognitive triad(what we think about ourselves and the world affects how we feel about ourselves and the world, which affects the way we act). 心理學Essay怎么寫

      Cognitive disorders can be caused by dysfunctional thought processes which can lead to depression, phobias, aggression and even anorexia. The information about how we think and behave can be altered by psychological therapy; correcting the thought processes of a person who over generalises and magnifies a particular problem. This therapy would also stop the person looking at life in a way where they question themselves; I should have done that, I should look this way. These feelings can create a cognitive disorder in the brain leading to a feeling of worthlessness. Reilly (1998) demonstrated this through a case study on treating a suicidal patient and decreasing their hopelessness.

       

      In a case like Clive Wearing (who has no long term memory after contracting a virus), cognitive psychologists were able to identify that it was his hippocampus that had been affected, which sends messages from short-term to long-term memory, but cognitive therapy would not have helped cure his case due to the permanent damage caused to his brain.

       

      The strengths of the cognitive approach are that it is scientific and the theories can be tested, like in the case of Clive Wearing. It can also explain the irrational behaviour of a person through cognitive disorders by the process of therapy and identifying malfunctioning thought processes, giving treatment to create a positive outlook. This approach has given explanations to many aspects of human behaviour and it also takes into consideration many of the other approaches in psychology.

      認知方法的優勢在于它是科學的,理論可以被檢驗,就像克萊夫·韋林的案例一樣。它還可以通過治療的過程來解釋一個人的非理性行為的認知障礙和識別故障的思維過程,給予治療以創造一個積極的前景。這種方法已經解釋了人類行為的許多方面,它也考慮了心理學中的許多其他方法。

       

      Its weaknesses are that it ignores social and cultural factors and the emotional effects of human life. It assumes that information processes apply to everyone. The rule is however, that the more complex the cognitive process is, the more likely there are to be individual differences (Parkin 2000).

       

      The Social Approach:

      The Social Approach has a great deal to do with the environment the person is in. The assumptions made about behaviour come down to the fact that; it occurs in a social context, even when nobody else is physically present and that peoples behaviour, thought processes and emotions are influenced by other people and society (G.Hill 2009). This idea does not take into account the fact that people bring with them individual differences (learnt or inherited) into social contexts and that this can affect their behaviour.

       

      Zimbardo et al (1973)s prison simulation experiment showed how dressing up as a prison guard with the power that went with it, altered the behaviour of normal thinking males to one of a controlling tyrannical person. According to Latane (1981) the readiness of someone to take on another role is down to the social impact theory; strength (or importance) of the influencer, the number of influencers and the immediacy of the influencers. This study used scientifically objective methods to support its theory and therefore gave a good understanding of behaviour. It was largely field based and therefore imitated real life. However, Zimbardos subjects knew they were in a controlled experiment and could have played upto their roles. They may also have been influenced by their own experiences of power stereotypes. The study could not account for these factors and like many field experiments lacked control, therefore its evidence is weakened.

       

      Social Psychology considers the importance of conformity and obedience as a large factor in behaviour. From 1933 to 1945 soldiers followed orders blindly and millions of innocent people were slaughtered on command. This could have only been carried out by a large number of people obeying orders from one person. This shows obedience can overcome free will by the importance of the influencer and the coercive power which involves punishment for non-compliance. The social approach can give a good understanding of why such an atrocity can occur through the orders of one person and influence a whole nation. It can be argued, however, that it does not take into consideration past history and the ethos of conflicting beliefs. Despite its weaknesses, the social approach does provide many explanations for numerous phenomena and has many useful practical applications in the field of psychology.

       

      There are a number of similarities across the 5 approaches; some are compared below:

      Biological and Cognitive approaches share a common view of the brain; neuroanatomy looks at the structure of the brain and behaviour, whilst the cognitive approach thinks of the brain as a computer. These links are clearly shown in the case of Clive Wearing, where an infection caused his memory loss.

       

      The Psychodynamic approach links to the Biological, Social and Cognitive approaches. Its theory of personality shares a belief in the evolutionary animal instinct appearing as the Id, whilst the unconscious mind theory links closely to the Cognitive idea that our unknown brain processes control our behaviour. Freuds psychosexual development compares closely with the Social approach that believes our childhood social experiences shape our actions.

      心理動力學方法與生物、社會和認知方法相聯系。它的人格理論認為,動物的進化本能以本我的形式出現,而潛意識理論則與認知理論密切相關,即我們未知的大腦過程控制著我們的行為。弗洛伊德的性心理發展與社會觀相比較,社會觀認為我們的童年社會經歷塑造了我們的行為。

       

      Finally, the Behavioural approach is very closely compared with the Social approach. Operant conditioning believes in learning by reinforcement, this is similarly shown through coercive control e.g. Hitler. Both these approaches also believe that behaviour can be affected by the environment and people, even the media through social learning and influence.

       

      Despite these similarities, there are lots of contrasting views on how specific approaches deal with abnormalities and gather their evidence. The treatment of anorexia nervosa is a good example as it has been studied in nearly all approaches.

       

      The Biological approach studied identical twins (A J Holland et al 1984) and through scientific evidence gathering of identical twin pairs was able to draw a link to the illness and genetics. Freuds Psychodynamic approach on the other hand, gathers theoretical information by speaking to patients with the disease. Bruch (1991) applied his ideas to the theory of development arguing that the parents of anorexics tend to be domineering, and the disorder represents an attempt to gain a sense of control. The Behavioural approach associated the illness with the effects of social learning, especially by media. A scientific study by Nasser (1986) gathered evidence of Egyptian women who had moved to the west and since developed anorexia. Both theoretical and scientific studies are used by the Cognitive approach. This approach believes it is a cognitive disorder that causes dysfunctional thought processes, with patients having an over importance of body weight and shape (Beck et al 1979). Patients are talked to about their feelings and attitudes to gather information. Finally, the Social approach looks at anorexia in much the same way as the behavioural approach. Its Social Impact Theory would class the thin role models as strong influencers who demonstrate that being thin is the social norm. Evidence gathering could be via scientific field studies and questionnaires to gather attitudes.

       

      Without knowing all the facts all we can do is surmise how the five approaches may be seen in Mikes aggression.

       

      The Biological Approach生物方法

      Mike may have become increasingly aggressive from a conflict at work; this may also be the reason why he was late home. Mikes anxiety levels maybe high, brought on by a possible chemical imbalance in the brain. For example, testosterone has been thought to be implicated in aggression (Simpson 2001) and it is more likely to have increased with anxiety. Mike may also have been having problems with sleeping due to any problems at work; Serotonin is produced from good sleep patterns and can be increased by exercise and eating a naturally carbohydrate rich diet (Mary Ann Copson 2007). If Mikes Serotonin levels are low due to lack of sleep or poor diet, this could have affected his mood and even brought on depression. Serotonin is known to be a feel good factor for the brain and can help reduce aggression brought on by testosterone (P. Bennett 2003), so a rise in testosterone and a lack of Serotonin could double the problem. Sapolsky (1997) however, suggest that it may actually be the other way around and aggression may actually increase testosterone.

      邁克可能因為工作上的沖突而變得越來越好斗;這也可能是他回家晚的原因。邁克的焦慮程度可能很高,可能是大腦中化學物質失衡造成的。例如,睪丸激素被認為與攻擊性有關(辛普森2001),而且它更有可能隨著焦慮而增加。邁克也可能因為工作上的問題而有睡眠問題;5 -羥色胺是由良好的睡眠模式產生的,可以通過鍛煉和吃天然的富含碳水化合物的飲食來增加(Mary Ann Copson, 2007)。如果邁克的血清素水平由于缺乏睡眠或飲食不良而降低,這可能會影響他的情緒,甚至導致抑郁癥。血清素被認為是一種讓大腦感覺良好的因素,可以幫助減少由睪丸素引起的攻擊性(P. Bennett 2003),所以睪丸素的上升和血清素的缺乏會使問題加倍。然而,Sapolsky(1997)認為,事實可能恰恰相反,攻擊性可能會增加睪丸激素。

       

      The Psychodynamic Approach

      Mikes aggression may possibly come from his unconscious mind. He may not be aware of his drives and instincts. Freud believed that the unconscious mind had two conflicting instincts; Eros (life) and Thanatos (death). Thanantos was self destructive while Eros has to fight for life. This conflict between the two has to be released outwards towards others, before they cause self destruction.

       

      Mike came from a family that had not controlled their violence and he witnessed much of this as a child. This period of childhood could have been when the Ego took control of his personality and should have been taught to him by his parents. This may not have happened and as a result the Ego could not control the Thanatos, while Eros may not have had the strength to balance the Id and Superego. Consequently, Mike may have become neurotic or even psychotic with his Ego being suppressed. The Id may have taken charge and then the Ego has to perform a defence mechanism called displacement and have aggressive outbursts on Mandy, instead of sublimation and releasing the destructive force through something like sport.

       

      The Behaviour Approach

      Mikes family are violent and aggressive; he witnessed this as a child and this may have shaped his thoughts of a family environment, believing violence was part of normal life. Mike may have learned this through a term called operant conditioning and believes that performing an aggressive act towards a person can be a way of avoiding negative consequences. There may be a likelihood of Mikes parents reinforcing his outbursts with praise whilst growing up. Bandura, Ross and Ross (1963) showed through experiments that children who watched adults hit a Bobo doll thought it was acceptable to be aggressive. Mike may also have learned to imitate his father in the role of head of the house by being violent and when he had his own family with Mandy, took on this role that he had once imitated.

       

      The Cognitive Approach認知的方法

      Mikes aggression could be down to the way his brain is processing information. Mike may be suffering depression or anxiety problems, perhaps because of problems at work. This may be making him magnify his problems and over generalise his life, making him feel he should be angry with himself and thinking negatively about his future.

      邁克的攻擊性可能與他大腦處理信息的方式有關。邁克可能患有抑郁癥或焦慮癥,可能是因為工作上的問題。這可能使他夸大了他的問題,過度概括了他的生活,使他覺得他應該對自己生氣,對他的未來持消極態度。

       

      When Mandy confronts him over his failure to call her, this may have made him feel rejected and reinforced his views of life and negativity; this may have had an effect on his physiological condition which made him act inappropriately and hit Mandy.

       

      The Social Approach

      Mike may have met up with some friends to watch a football match. He may have been wearing his favourite teams strip like his friends, which made him feel like part of a collective group with one identity. Mike may have been feeling after the game that he wasnt an individual with responsibilities and this loosened his inhibitions.

       

      This was shown by Hogg and Vaughan (1998), where they showed how an individual can lose their identity and engage in anti-social behaviour. When Mandy confronted him for his actions and showed him disregard, he became aggressive and hit her for undermining his thought processes of being a strong male in a group. Whilst wearing his team top with pride he felt that his behaviour would be acceptable by the group and did not think as an individual.

      HoggVaughan(1998)證明了這一點,他們展示了一個人是如何失去自己的身份并參與反社會行為的。當曼迪質問他的行為,并表現出對他的漠視時,他變得咄咄逼人,因為她破壞了他在群體中作為一個強壯男性的思維過程而打她。當他驕傲地穿著他的團隊隊服時,他覺得他的行為會被團隊所接受,而不是以個人的身份思考。

       

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