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      心理學Essay模板:5 Stages of Human Development

      論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-02-24 11:31:11 來源:www.ourpropertyvalue.com 作者:留學作業網

      本文是心理學專業的Essay范例,題目是5 Stages of Human Development(人類發展的5個階段)”,社會、身體、情感、認知和文化的變化貫穿個人的一生。開發的一般順序是固定的,但是開發的速度有時會因許多因素而有所不同。有一些關鍵的需求必須得到滿足,如果沒有得到滿足,就會產生后果。

      Social, physical, emotional, cognitive and cultural changes take place throughout the lifespan of an individual. There is a general sequence of development which is fixed, however the rate of development can sometimes differ depending on many factors. There are key needs which must be met and consequences if they are not.

       

      Stage of Life Cycle: Infancy 0-5 Years生命周期階段:嬰兒0-5

      Attachment Theory-Bowlby

      At this stage the infant is highly dependant. From the moment a child is born they begin to develop physically. The babys senses begin to develop; he is able to focus on objects, learns to hold the weight of his head up and attempts to pull himself up holding onto the edge of a chair or table. He then learns to crawl and with lots of encouragement finally learns to walk. Through interaction with parents, family, friends and other children they learn to socialise, play and communicate. With much needed stimulation and play, babies and young children learn. They begin to recognise and memorise faces, characters, objects and songs. With communication, consistency and encouragement they learn speech and are taught routines and behaviour, such as bed-time and toilet training. To develop emotionally, a baby needs love, affection and consistent care.

      在這個階段,嬰兒高度依賴。從孩子出生那一刻起,他們的身體就開始發育。嬰兒的感官開始發育;他能夠把注意力集中在物體上,學會抬起頭的重量,并試圖抓住椅子或桌子的邊緣把自己拉起來。然后他學會了爬行,在許多人的鼓勵下,他終于學會了走路。通過與父母、家人、朋友和其他孩子的互動,他們學會了社交、玩耍和交流。嬰兒和幼兒在需要的刺激和玩耍下學習。他們開始識別和記憶面孔、人物、物體和歌曲。通過溝通、堅持和鼓勵,他們學會說話,并被教導日常生活和行為,如就寢時間和如廁訓練。嬰兒要發展情感,需要愛、關懷和始終如一的照顧。

       心理學Essay范例

      Bowlbys attachment theory, as later complimented by Rutter, suggests that from birth a child requires a consistent attachment and bonding with at least one main caregiver. With a sense of safety, belonging and being cared for unconditionally the child learns trust and views the world as a safe place to be. For this reason it is important to avoid broken attachments. If the childs parents are uncaring, unreliable, are inconsistent with their care or if circumstances cause the attachment to be broken completely, the child may be unable to develop to their full potential. Without an adequate, loving attachment the infant may not be able to develop a loving relationship in future and without a trusting relationship with the main caregiver, they will develop mistrust. They may become apprehensive, withdrawn and suspicious around people.

       

      Stage of Life Cycle: Childhood 5-12 years生命周期階段:童年5-12

      8 stages of Identity; Initiative v Guilt-Erikson

      As the child reaches school age they have increasing physical independence. They now begin to learn new skills such as running, skipping, ball games and cycling. They have progressed socially and have the ability to choose their own friends, find their own interests and make their own decisions about which activities they take part in. They begin to develop an understanding of others needs and wants and learn to share and take turns. They can begin to develop emotional attachments to individuals other than family members which can develop if stimulated. Cognitively the child begins school education and begins to develop an understanding of authority and following rules.

      當孩子達到學齡時,他們在身體上越來越獨立。他們現在開始學習新的技能,如跑步、跳繩、球類運動和騎自行車。他們在社會上取得了進步,有能力選擇自己的朋友,找到自己的興趣,并對參加什么活動做出自己的決定。他們開始理解他人的需求和欲望,并學會分享和輪流分享。他們會開始對家庭成員以外的個人產生情感依戀,如果受到刺激,這種情感依戀就會產生。從認知上來說,孩子開始接受學校教育,開始發展對權威的理解和遵守規則。

       

      At this stage of a childs development they should be able to learn initiative without taking on too much guilt. Initiative means they should be allowed a certain amount of responsibility and the freedom to learn new skills; they can only achieve this by the parents allowing and encouraging their child to try out ideas and to allow them to use their imagination. The child must not be treated to feel too much guilt over their behaviour or feel ridiculed; this can lead them to become over sensitive and they can feel guilty about their feelings. On the other hand too much initiative and too little guilt can create a ruthless individual; they may not contemplate or care about the consequences of their actions.

       

      Erikson also states a child must develop a capacity for industry without excessive inferiority. The child must learn to understand the difference between imagination and reality with the guidance of parents and teachers. The child should learn the feeling of success and be praised and encouraged, without this they may develop an inferiority complex; they may become scared of failure and not able to attempt and learn new skills.

      埃里克森還指出,孩子必須培養勤奮的能力,而不能過分自卑。孩子必須在家長和老師的指導下學會理解想象和現實的區別。孩子應該學會成功的感覺,得到表揚和鼓勵,如果沒有這些,他們可能會發展自卑情結;他們可能會害怕失敗,無法嘗試和學習新的技能。

       

      Stage of Life Cycle: Adolescence 13-20 years生命周期階段:13-20歲的青春期

      8 Stages of Identity; Identity v Role Confusion/Self Concept-Carl Rogers

      During adolescence the individual goes through a rapid growth spurt. Puberty begins and many developmental changes take place; boys begin to develop more defined muscle tone, start to grow hair over their body and their voice breaks and becomes deeper; girls become more curvaceous and they begin their menstrual period-both sexes become extremely hormonal which can lead to mood swings affecting their social and emotional life. They may be concerned that they are not developing as quickly as their peers causing emotional stress. Teens begin to develop and explore their personality and self image. Dependant on their culture they may develop physical relationships and experiment with drugs and alcohol. They experience and develop new social skills as they attend higher education and may leave the family home to attend college or university. The brain continues to develop until late adolescence. Cognitively this can be a very turbulent time with the pressure of exams and choosing their career.

      在青春期,個體經歷一個快速的生長突增期。青春期開始,許多發育變化發生;男孩們開始發展更明確的肌肉張力,開始在他們的身體上長出毛發,他們的聲音變弱,變得低沉;女孩的曲線變得更加豐滿,她們的月經期也開始了——男女都變得荷爾蒙分泌旺盛,這會導致情緒波動,影響她們的社交和情緒生活。他們可能會擔心自己沒有同齡人發展得快,從而造成情緒壓力。青少年開始發展和探索他們的個性和自我形象。依賴于他們的文化,他們可能會發展身體關系,并接觸毒品和酒精。他們在接受高等教育的過程中體驗和發展新的社會技能,也可能離開家去上大學。大腦持續發育直到青春期后期。從認知上來說,這可能是一個非常動蕩的時期,伴隨著考試和擇業的壓力。

       

      As adolescents go through new life experiences and learn to deal with their emotions, they begin to take responsibility for themselves, reflect on their experience of life so far and create their own identity. Teens often rebel against the authority which has governed them up until this point; they break the rules and resist against their parents wishes. Their behaviour and attitudes change, they experiment with style and clothing and even begin to speak differently as they struggle to find their true self. They have a need to discover their own identity and to been seen in a positive way by others. Eriksons theory states that the individual must discover his own identity and without the freedom to do so may struggle to fit in and socialise. If this development is not made, for example if adults in the adolescents life do not allow them the freedom to express themselves, they may find it difficult to take on responsibilities and develop a sense of right from wrong. Should the parents push them to conform to their views; the individual will experience role confusion.

      當青少年經歷新的生活經歷并學會處理他們的情緒時,他們開始為自己負責,反思他們迄今為止的生活經歷并創造他們自己的身份。青少年經常反抗統治他們到現在為止的權威;他們打破規則,反抗父母的意愿。他們的行為和態度發生了變化,在努力尋找真實自我的過程中,他們嘗試著改變風格和服裝,甚至開始用不同的方式說話。他們需要發現自己的身份,并以積極的方式被他人看到。埃里克森的理論認為,個人必須發現自己的身份,如果沒有這樣做的自由,可能會難以融入社會。如果這種發展不進行,例如,如果成年人在青少年的生活中不允許他們自由表達自己,他們可能會發現很難承擔責任和培養是非感。如果父母強迫他們遵從自己的觀點;個體將經歷角色混淆。

       

      Stage of Life Cycle: Adulthood 21-65 years生命周期階段:成年21-65

      Hierarchy of needs-Maslow

      As the individual reaches young adulthood, they reach their peak physical fitness, have an increase in stamina and should have developed a balance of good health and lifestyle. They may have their own children and have begun to settle down. They have generally decided and have settled down into their chosen field of profession and work to develop and improve their education and skills. They now take on many more responsibilities such as a mortgage, providing a stable and secure base for their family or they may experience stress within the workplace. Emotionally they may have experience of death and bereavement. They have more intimate relationships and may decide to marry; their role within the family changes and they begin to build social networks.

      當個體進入青年期時,他們的身體素質達到頂峰,耐力增強,應該在良好的健康和生活方式之間取得平衡。他們可能有了自己的孩子,開始安定下來。他們一般已經決定并定居在他們所選擇的專業領域和工作中,以發展和提高他們的教育和技能。他們現在承擔了更多的責任,比如抵押貸款,為他們的家庭提供一個穩定和安全的基礎,或者他們可能會在工作中經歷壓力。情感上,他們可能會經歷死亡和喪親之痛。他們有更親密的關系,并可能決定結婚;他們在家庭中的角色發生了變化,他們開始建立社交網絡。

       

      According to Maslow, to achieve fulfilment an individual has key needs which must be met in order to reach their full potential, this is know as a hierarchy of needs. The bottom of the pyramid shows physiological needs such as shelter, food, warmth, stimulation and rest. The next level states safety needs which are required; protection from disease and illness. Maslow states that in order to move up the pyramid, each stage of requirements must be met. For example, without food and shelter an individual cannot be safe against disease and in turn cannot move up to the next step of the pyramid which is love and belongingness, followed by self-esteem. In adult life in our culture it is expected that an individual will be provided with their physiological needs and can live in safety. If they do not receive the love and affection they need; trust and acceptance and a feeling of belongingness they may not have self-esteem. Without respect and love from others they cannot respect and love themselves.

       心理學Essay怎么寫

      Stage of Life Cycle: Older Adulthood 65+ years生命周期階段:老年期65歲以上

      Hierarchy of needs-Maslow

      As the adult enters into the last stage of their life, they may begin to physically grow frail and can often suffer with mental illness. Older adultseyesight and hearing often begins to fail as they age. Socially the older generation tend to follow other interests and after retirement have time to lead a full social life. However, the older generation can become more isolated due to family issues or health reasons such as hearing or sight difficulties. Emotionally they can become withdrawn feeling themselves as a burden to their society, family and friends. They may begin to contemplate their lives and have negative feelings such as regret or guilt; however they may feel fulfilled, proud of their accomplishments and their family. An older adult has wisdom and experience although they may find it difficult to grasp and understand new technology and develop new skills. These disabilities are often due to ill health or memory loss.

      隨著成人進入生命的最后階段,他們的身體可能會開始變得虛弱,并經常遭受精神疾病的折磨。老年人的視力和聽力往往會隨著年齡的增長而開始衰退。在社會上,老一輩人傾向于追隨其他興趣,退休后有時間過完整的社會生活。然而,由于家庭問題或聽力或視力困難等健康原因,老一輩人可能會變得更加孤立。在情感上,他們會變得孤僻,覺得自己是社會、家庭和朋友的負擔。他們可能會開始思考自己的生活,并產生后悔或內疚等負面情緒;然而,他們可能會感到滿足,為他們的成就和他們的家庭感到自豪。老年人有智慧和經驗,盡管他們可能會發現很難掌握和理解新技術和發展新的技能。這些殘疾通常是由于健康狀況不佳或記憶力喪失。

       

      According to Maslows Hierarchy of Needs, at that top of the pyramid the individual has a need for esteem; self-esteem and the esteem they receive from others. They require a level of respect for themselves and from others; with the needs met they feel self confident and valuable. Without esteem they can feel inferior and worthless. If all the needs of the pyramid have been met, the older adult reaches self-actualisation; a feeling that they have lived a life of purpose. Without the other needs of the pyramid being met they may struggle to reach this level.

      根據馬斯洛需求層次理論,在金字塔的頂端,個人需要尊重;自尊和他們從別人那里得到的尊重。他們需要一定程度的尊重自己和他人;需求得到滿足后,他們會感到自信和有價值。沒有自尊,他們會感到自卑和毫無價值。如果金字塔的所有需求都得到了滿足,老年人就能實現自我實現;一種他們活得有意義的感覺。如果不滿足金字塔的其他需求,他們可能會努力達到這一水平。

       

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