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      心理學Essay范文翻譯:Theories Of The Nature Versus Nurture Debate

      論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-03-18 13:24:07 來源:www.ourpropertyvalue.com 作者:留學作業網

      本文是心理學專業的Essay范例,題目是Theories Of The Nature Versus Nurture Debate(心理學中的意識理解)”,先天與后天的爭論是心理學領域中最復雜的爭論之一。在17世紀,一位法國哲學家René笛卡爾提出:“我們所有人,作為個體,都有某些固有的思想,這些思想持久地支撐著我們對世界的看法”(Crawford, 1989 p 64)?!跋忍臁焙汀昂筇臁边@兩個術語的使用從此分別指的是遺傳和環境在人類發展中的作用。一些科學家認為,人類的行為是對遺傳易感性作出的反應。這被稱為人類行為的自然理論,是自然主義者所擁護的觀點(Scott, 1995)。其他科學家則不這么認為;人們以特定的方式思考和行為,因為他們被教導這樣做。這被稱為人類行為的培養理論,是經驗主義者的觀點。本文提出了先天與后天理論、知覺、智力和人格的闡釋。此外,本文還討論了后天培養和環境對行為和道德的影響的證據。作者在探究先天與后天之爭的過程中認為,先天賦予人類與生俱來的能力和特質,后天則利用這些遺傳傾向,隨著人類的學習和成熟而逐漸形成。

      The nature versus nurture debate is one of the most convoluted in the field of psychology. In the 17th century, a French philosopher, René Descartes posited that we all, as individual human beings, have certain innate ideas that enduringly underpin our approach to the world(Crawford, 1989 p 64). The use of the terms natureand nurturehenceforth has referred to the roles of heredity and environment respectively in human development. Some scientists believe that human beings behave as they do in response to genetic predisposition. This is known as the nature theory of human behavior and is the view espoused by naturalists (Scott, 1995). Other scientists think otherwise; that people think and behave in certain ways because they are taught to do so. This is known as nurture theory of human behavior and is the view of empiricists. Presented in the paper are the theories of nature vs. nurture, elucidation of perception, intelligence and personality within the debate. In addition, the paper discusses eevidences in favor of nurture and the influence of environment on behavior and morality. In exploring the nature versus the nurture debate, the writer presumes that nature endows human beings with inborn abilities and traits while nurture takes these genetic tendencies and molds them as humans learn and mature.

      心理學Essay范例

      According to naturalists, personality is natural. This group believes that personality is a result of evolutionary process. Human beings, it believes, inherit behaviors due to a complex interaction of genes. As such, genes control their behaviors. They believe that form and characteristics measured with personality tests remain stable throughout human life. They further believe that human beings may sharpen their types or personality but can never change them altogether. Darwins Theory of Evolution led naturalists such as George Williams, William Hamilton, and many others to the idea of personality evolution. They proposed that physical organs and personality is a result of natural selection (Herschkowitz, 2002). Human beings do as their genes dictate. In support, Steven Pinker (2004) includes conservativeness, religiousness and liberalism as gene related traits. William Paley, in agreement, believes cognitive capabilities, temperaments, and cheating behaviors are inheritable.

       

      There are however various assumptions about nature. Evolutionary psychologists believe that behaviour is a result of natural selection in the environment of evolutionary adaptation (EEA). Interpersonal attraction therefore can be explained as a consequence of sexual selection men and women select partners who enhance their reproductive success (Crawford, 1989).

      然而,關于自然有各種各樣的假設。進化心理學家認為,行為是進化適應環境(EEA)中自然選擇的結果。因此,人際間的吸引可以被解釋為性選擇的結果——男人和女人選擇能提高他們繁殖成功率的伴侶(Crawford, 1989)。

       

      Arguments for the supremacy of nurture posit that personality is nurtured. This group argues that one does not get personality from inheritance. They argue that the mind is a blank slate at birth. The definition of nurture has extended to influence of development that emanates from prenatal, parental, peer influence and extending to the role of media, marketing and socio-economic status (Scott, 1995). They dispute that types and characteristics measured with personality tests change incessantly throughout ones life. Harvard psychologist B. F. Skinners, experiments, produced birds that could dance and play tennis. Today, known as the father of behavioral science, Skinner ultimately went on to prove that human behavior could be conditioned in much the same way as animals. If environment did not play a part in determining an individuals traits and behaviors, then identical twins should be the same in all respects, even if reared apart. However, a number of studies show that they are never exactly alike, even though they are remarkably similar in most respects (Michaels, 2001).

       

      Assumptions about nurture are also present. Radical psychologists such as Skinner and Watson, for instance, claim that all behaviour can be described in terms of experience alone. Skinner (1957) suggested that acquisition of language by a child could be explained entirely in terms of rewards and shaping. The double bind theory of schizophrenia, for instance, suggests that schizophrenia developed in children who frequently received contradictory messages from their parents.

      關于后天培養的假設也存在。例如,斯金納(Skinner)和沃森(Watson)等激進心理學家聲稱,所有行為都可以僅用經驗來描述。斯金納(1957)提出,兒童的語言習得可以完全用獎勵和塑造來解釋。例如,精神分裂癥的雙重束縛理論認為,精神分裂癥是在經常從父母那里收到矛盾信息的孩子身上發展起來的。

       

      Nature vs. Nurture Perception

      Two main theories of perception are advanced to explain the debate about nature versus nurture. Gibson (1979 as cited by Cardwell and Flanagan, 2004. P 262) [1] argued that perception is innate because the sensory array is sufficiently rich in information for perception to take place without any additional cognitive input. Gregory (1972) on the other hand pointed to the ambiguous and fragmentary nature of most sensory input, which must thus rely on expectations (derived from experience) to complete the perceptual process (Michael, 2001).

       

      Intelligence and Personality- Nature vs. Nurture智力與個性——先天與后天

      Evidence in favor of nature has been reinforced by hypothesis on IQ that has been tested on twins and adoptees. Monozygotic twins raised apart are highly similar in IQ (0.74), more so than dizygotic twins raised together (0.6) and much more than adoptive siblings (~0.0) (Crawford, 1989). In other studies done in Harvard, identical twins reared separately exhibited likeness in the timing and pattern of development and maturation. Further was a likeness in some of the foundations of temperament and behavior, from sensitivity to activity to emotional response (Westen, 2002). This denoted that the personality of twins was influenced by their genetics than the environment they were raised.

      通過對雙胞胎和被收養者進行的智商測試,證實了支持大自然的證據。分開撫養的同卵雙胞胎的智商非常相似(0.74),比一起撫養的異卵雙胞胎的智商(0.6)要高,比收養的兄弟姐妹的智商(~0.0)要高得多(Crawford, 1989)。在哈佛大學的其他研究中,分開撫養的同卵雙胞胎在發育和成熟的時間和模式上表現出相似。此外,氣質和行為的一些基礎也很相似,從敏感到活動再到情緒反應(Westen, 2002)。這表明,雙胞胎的性格受基因的影響大于成長環境的影響。 心理學Essay怎么寫

      Environment on the other hand does play a role in the formation of who we are and does effect the development of our personality and intelligence. By altering the environment in which a person is raised, there can be some effect on the persons developing intelligence and personality. While this is true, the results of the twin studies cannot be ignored (Westen, 2002). These studies show that our genetics have a stronger influence than our environment. Across a variety of traits, including IQ, personality indicators such as political conservatism, conviviality, and even religiosity, homosexuality, and neuroticism, identical twins are more similar to one another than are fraternal pairs. This indicates that genes affect these aspects of personality. Gene mapping studies (Crawford& salmon, 2004) have identified individual genes associated with high IQ. There is strong evidence for the effects of nurture, for example, the fact that IQs all over the world have increased as much as 20 points over 30 years.

      另一方面,環境確實在我們是誰的形成中發揮作用,也確實影響我們個性和智力的發展。通過改變一個人成長的環境,可能會對一個人的智力和個性的發展產生一些影響。雖然這是事實,但雙胞胎研究的結果不能被忽視(Westen, 2002)。這些研究表明,我們的基因比環境對我們的影響更大。從智商、性格指標來看,如政治保守主義、歡樂、甚至宗教信仰、同性戀和神經質等,同卵雙胞胎比異卵雙胞胎彼此更相似。這表明基因會影響性格的這些方面?;蚨ㄎ谎芯?/span>(Crawford& salmon, 2004)已經確定了與高智商相關的個體基因。例如,有強有力的證據證明后天培養的影響,全世界的智商在過去30年里都提高了20分。

       

      No matter where human beings are raised, it cannot completely change the genes that they are born with. These studies have produced substantive evidence of heritability. What varies from study to study is the quantity that can be attributed to heritability. Indication suggests that family environmental factors may have an effect upon childhood IQ, accounting for up to a quarter of the variance. On the other hand, by late adolescence this relationship disappears, such that adoptive siblings are no more similar in IQ than strangers are (Westen, 2002).

       

      Evidence in Favor of Nurture有證據支持后天培養

      John Watson in 1924 attempted to challenge nature beliefs by asserting that if given a dozen of healthy infants and his own world to nurture them, he would be able to take each infant and train them to be any type of specialist he might select-doctor, lawyer or even a thief. This became a famous quote in the heyday of behaviorism, when the child was considered a tabula rasa(blank slate) onto which anything could be sculpted through environmental experience. This would be a 100% environmental view, but virtually no psychologists would accept such an extreme position today (Crawford& salmon, 2004).

      約翰·華生于1924年試圖挑戰自然的信念,聲稱如果一打健康的嬰兒和他們培養自己的世界,他可以把每個嬰兒和訓練他們的任何類型的專家,他可能select-doctor,律師或甚至一個小偷。這在行為主義的全盛時期成為了一句名言,當時的孩子被認為是一塊“白板”,任何東西都可以通過環境經驗雕刻在上面。這將是一個100%的環境觀點,但幾乎沒有心理學家會接受今天這樣一個極端的立場(Crawford& salmon, 2004)。

       

      Influence of the Environment on Behavior and Morality環境對行為和道德的影響

      A variety of explanations might account for this. From a biologic or developmental perspective, one might argue that pre-homosexual children are more likely to be targets for molestation. In a sociological perspective, children who have pre-homosexual experiences are most likely to experience confusion over their sexual identity and later define themselves as homosexuals. From the perspective of the moral environment, one may argue that a society with a progressively more neutral outlook of homosexual behavior will grant fewer and weaker checks on those who associate early homosexual experience with a homosexual identity (Scott 1995).

      有各種各樣的解釋可以解釋這一點。從生物學或發育學的角度來看,有人可能會認為,同性戀前的兒童更有可能成為性騷擾的目標。從社會學的角度來看,有過同性戀前經歷的孩子最有可能對自己的性別身份感到困惑,然后將自己定義為同性戀者。從道德環境的角度來看,人們可能會認為,一個對同性戀行為越來越中立的社會將會對那些將早期同性戀經歷與同性戀身份聯系在一起的人給予越來越少和越來越弱的檢查(Scott 1995)。

       

      Levy, a psychologist, examines the roles played by nature and nurture in the origin of moral dispositions. He asserts that evolution gives human beings a precondition of morality. However, he states that Evolution gives us the preconditions of morality, but it is only as a result of the cultural elaboration of this raw material that we come to be moral beings. He further states that human beings are animals and can never free themselves of their biological heritage. He states that human beings have no need since it enables flexibility, rational and caring behavior which they could want and allows them to seek to become more moral beings (Carlson, 2005).

       

      Conclusion結論

      Researchers on all sides of the nature vs. nurture debate concur that the link between a gene and a behavior is not the same as cause and effect. While a gene may increase the likelihood that you will behave in a particular way, it does not make people do things (Scott, 1995). This means that we still get to choose who we will be, when we grow up. Social scientists gradually understand the extent of the interactions that take place between nature and nurture. The presence of genes does not by solely ensure that a particular attribute will be evident. Genes require the suitable environments for natural tendencies to be fully articulated. These proper environmentsconsist not only of natural environs but also of individualssocial and symbolic setting (Westen 2002). But even for intermediary heritabilities, a trait is always shaped by both genetic dispositions and the environments in which people develop, merely with greater and lesser plasticities associated with these heritability measures. All in all nature relies on nurture and vice versa and hence both coexist together.

      在先天與后天的爭論中,各方面的研究人員一致認為,基因和行為之間的聯系并不等同于因果關系。雖然一個基因可能會增加你以某種特定方式行事的可能性,但它不會讓人做事(Scott, 1995)。這意味著,當我們長大后,我們仍然可以選擇成為什么樣的人。社會科學家逐漸理解了先天和后天之間的相互作用的程度?;虻拇嬖诓⒉粌H僅是為了確保某一特定的屬性是明顯的?;蛐枰m當的環境才能使自然傾向得到充分表達。這些“適當的環境”不僅包括自然環境,也包括個人的社會和象征環境(Westen 2002)。但即使是中間遺傳力,一種性狀也總是由遺傳性格和人們發展的環境決定的,只是可塑性的大小與這些遺傳力指標有關。所有的自然都依賴于后天培養,反之亦然,因此兩者共存。

       

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