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      心理學Essay作業:The Different Types of the Psychological Disorder Schizophrenia

      論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-03-25 15:48:20 來源:www.ourpropertyvalue.com 作者:留學作業網

      本文是心理學專業的Essay范例,題目是The Different Types of the Psychological Disorder Schizophrenia(心理障礙的不同類型精神分裂癥)”,精神分裂癥是一種慢性心理疾病,影響著大約1%的美國人口。統計數據顯示,它對男性的影響是女性的1.5倍。它的特征是思維癥狀和行為問題?;加羞@種疾病的人說話有時講不通,可能會產生妄想癥,有時還會出現幻覺。這種心理障礙同樣影響家庭和社會,因為患有這種障礙的人有時不能照顧自己,也不能堅持工作,因此嚴重依賴他人。這種疾病可以通過藥物和心理干預治療。研究人員正在使用了解這種疾病的原因的工具來開發更有效的藥物。

      Schizophrenia is one of the chronic psychological disorders affecting approximately one percent of the American population. Statistics show that it affects men one and a half times more than women. It is characterized by symptoms of thought, and behavioral problems. People who suffer this disease do not sometimes make sense when they are talking and may be delusional and sometimes experience hallucinations. The psychological disorder affect families and societies alike since the people with the disorder cannot at times take care of themselves neither can they hold on to a job thus depending heavily on others. The disorder is treatable through medication as well as psychological interventions. Researchers are using tools that understand the causes of the disorder to develop more effective medicines.

      心理學Essay范例

      Introduction介紹

      Psychological disorders can be defined as patterns of behavioral symptoms that influence various areas in peoples lifestyle and create distress on the ones affected (Laurie 142). Examples of psychological disorders include schizophrenia, phobias, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsion, depression and post-trauma stress disorder. This paper focuses on schizophrenia.

      心理障礙可以被定義為行為癥狀的模式,影響人們生活方式的各個方面,并給受影響的人造成痛苦(Laurie 142)。心理障礙的例子包括精神分裂癥、恐懼癥、焦慮癥、強迫癥、抑郁癥和創傷后應激障礙。本文以精神分裂癥為研究對象。

       

      Schizophrenia also known as split personality disorder is a chronic and severe mental illness involving auditory hallucinations, very disturbed moods or social problems, thoughts and behaviors (Laurie 143). The problem of thoughts associated with schizophrenia is described as psychosis. A person suffering from schizophrenia has the kind of thinking that is completely out of touch with the reality. A person may for instance could be hearing nonexistent voices or seeing images that are not there. For instance in the film, A Beautiful Mind, the star character John Nash, experiences both visual and auditory hallucinations. He sees three characters in his life that are completely non-existent. These are: Charles (his roommate), Marcee (the roommates niece) and Parcher (his boss from the US Defense Department). In one scene, he leaves his son in the bathtub alone but he claims that Charles is watching over the child. This is a visual hallucination. In yet another scene, he claims that Parcher is instructing him to kill his wife Alicia. This is an auditory hallucination.

       

      Types of schizophrenia類型的精神分裂癥

      There are five types of schizophrenia depending on the kind of symptoms a patient exhibits during assessment. They include paranoid, catatonic, disorganized, undifferentiated, and residual schizophrenia.

      根據患者在評估過程中表現出的癥狀,精神分裂癥有五種類型。它們包括偏執型、緊張性、無組織、未分化和殘留型精神分裂癥。

       

      Under paranoid schizophrenia, a person gets preoccupied with one or more delusions or hallucinations but doesnt get disorganized. This kind of Schizophrenia is brought out really well in the film A Beautiful Mind. Nash is very paranoid; he feels that Soviet agents want to kill him because he apparently assisted in sabotaging one of their plots by picking out patterns of information from newspapers and magazines.

       

      In disorganized schizophrenia, a person is disorganized in both speech and behavior but doesnt get worse to the extent of being catatonic. One of the speech disorders is schizophrenia is loosening of association.

       

      Catatonic schizophrenia is a situation where a person displays two or more of the following symptoms: difficulty in moving, resistance to motion, or excessive moving around, weird movements and imitating other peoples actions (echopraxia). In an article from the journal American Journal of Psychiatry, it is well elaborated how pronounced motor in coordination can be in schizophrenia. Following a research, it was seen that in fact motor in coordination can be used to tell the neurodevelopment of Schizophrenia (Schiffman 1041). There could also be cognitive symptoms that are residual as in the case of the 22year-old man in an article by Clinical Case Studies(Sass and Nelson 489).

      緊張性精神分裂癥是指一個人表現出以下兩種或兩種以上的癥狀:行動困難,抵抗運動,或過度移動,奇怪的動作和模仿他人的行為(異跳癥)?!睹绹癫W雜志》上的一篇文章詳細闡述了精神分裂癥患者的運動協調能力。一項研究發現,事實上,運動協調可以用來判斷精神分裂癥的神經發育情況(Schiffman 1041)?!芭R床案例研究”(Sass and Nelson 489)一篇文章中提到的22歲男子的認知癥狀也可能是殘留的。

       

      In undifferentiated schizophrenia, a person will do two or more of the things or symptoms done under paranoid, disorganized, and catatonic types of schizophrenia. However such a person classified under undifferentiated schizophrenia doesnt qualify to be diagnosed of the three former types. 心理學Essay怎么寫

      Lastly is the residual type of schizophrenia. Under this type, positive symptoms involving behavior that is beyond normal such as hallucinations, sensitiveness, and paranoia are absent. Instead, the patient has negative symptoms that are mainly about reduced functionalism, quietness, withdrawal and not being interested in things or events.

       

      Causes of schizophrenia精神分裂癥的原因

      Schizophrenia is not an expressly hereditary mental disorder but rather a mix of genetic, psychological and environmental factors (Dryden-Edwards 232). Environmentally, the risk of developing the disorder may start prior to birth if for example a persons mother had some infections while pregnant with the person. Other examples of factors that can lead to the development of schizophrenia disorder are: physical and/ or emotional neglect, sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, bullying, and difficult childhood life (Walsh and Fahy 124). Another factor that has been researched on is representation of the minority in a group especially ethnically (Dryden-Edwards 235). In this case, ethnic minorities are more likely to develop schizophrenia if not well represented in a neighborhood.

      精神分裂癥不是一種明確的遺傳性精神障礙,而是遺傳、心理和環境因素的混合(Dryden-Edwards 232)。從環境上來說,如果一個人的母親在懷孕期間有一些感染,那么這種疾病的風險可能在出生前就開始了。其他可能導致精神分裂癥發展的因素的例子有:身體和/或情感忽視、性虐待、身體虐待、情感虐待、欺凌和艱難的童年生活(WalshFahy 124)。另一個被研究的因素是少數群體的代表性,特別是在種族上(Dryden-Edwards 235)。在這種情況下,少數民族更有可能患上精神分裂癥,如果沒有良好的社區代表。

       

      Symptoms of schizophrenia

      The symptoms of schizophrenia can be either positive or negative. Positive symptoms are those that are visibly psychotic such as delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized behaviors, and catatonic characteristics. This is clearly depicted in an article published by the journal Clinical Case Studieswhere a 53 year-old man suffering from paranoid schizophrenia presented with auditory hallucinations and persecutory delusions (Hatzipetrou and Oei 339).

       

      Negative symptoms on the other hand are less openly psychotic such as lack of speech, less motivation and inhibited facial expressions.

       

      Diagnosis of schizophrenia精神分裂癥的診斷

      Practitioners often gather comprehensive medical, family, and mental health information to diagnose this disorder. Some of the information gathered include: gender, cultural, religious and ethnic background, sexual orientation and economic well being or financial status. Physical examination and laboratory tests may be included to determine patients health status.

      醫生經常收集綜合的醫療、家庭和心理健康信息來診斷這種疾病。收集的一些資料包括:性別、文化、宗教和種族背景、性取向和經濟福利或財務狀況??砂w格檢查和實驗室檢查,以確定病人的健康狀況。

       

      Treatment for schizophrenia

      There are medications known as antipsychotics that help in reducing the magnitude of psychotic symptoms. These medications are widely prescribed solely or combined with other psychiatric medicines. Examples of antipsychotics are Chlorpromazine (Largactil or Thorazine), Olanzapine (Zyperexa), Risperidone (Risperdal), Ziprasidone (Geodon) and Aripiprazole (Abilify). These examples are the newer versions of antipsychotics often referred to as second-generation antipsychotics that work quickly in comparison to other psychiatric medications. It is important to note that not all antipsychotics that treat adults are advisable for administering in children.

       

      The side effects of antipsychotics include sleepiness, dizziness, increased appetite, weight gain due to high blood sugar, increased blood lipid levels and increased prolactin level. Older generation antipsychotics such as Perphenazine (Trilafon) may cause muscle stiffness and tremors. These side effects can be so serious as to interfere with patients daily activities. For instance, in the film A Beautiful Mind, some of the side effects Nash experiences include impaired emotional function which strains his marriage and decreased intellectual capacity which frustrates his work. To counter the side effects of antipsychotics, are other drugs such as

      抗精神病藥物的副作用包括嗜睡、頭暈、食欲增加、高血糖引起的體重增加、血脂升高、催乳素增加等。老一代的抗精神病藥物如奮乃靜(Trilafon)可能會引起肌肉僵硬和震顫。這些副作用非常嚴重,甚至影響到病人的日常生活。例如,在電影《美麗心靈》中,納什經歷的一些副作用包括情感功能受損,這使他的婚姻緊張,智力下降,使他的工作受挫。為了對抗抗精神病藥物的副作用,還有其他藥物如

       

      Another classification of medication is Mood-stabilizer for example Lithium, Carbamazepine (Tegretol) and Lamotriqine. They treat mood changes but may take a longer time to work compared to antipsychotics. According to National Institute of Health (2009), they require close monitoring of blood levels and may cause birth defects when administered to pregnant women.

       

      Besides medication, psychological interventions are important in treating schizophrenia. These interventions include family psycho-education, assertive community treatment, substance abuse treatment, social skills training, supported employment, cognitive behavioral therapy and weight management. These interventions are important to avoid the risk of patient defaulting medication especially because of the side effects such as is the case of Nash in A Beautiful Mind. This leads to a relapse as was shown in the film.

      除藥物治療外,心理干預在精神分裂癥的治療中也很重要。這些干預措施包括家庭心理教育、果斷的社區治療、藥物濫用治療、社會技能培訓、支持就業、認知行為治療和體重管理。這些干預措施對于避免病人不按時服藥的風險是很重要的,特別是因為副作用,例如納什在《美麗心靈》中的情況。正如電影中所展示的那樣,這導致了復發。

       

      留學生論文相關專業范文素材資料,盡在本網,可以隨時查閱參考。本站也提供多國留學生課程作業寫作指導服務,如有需要可咨詢本平臺。


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