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      英國Assignment寫作范文:Is the UK a Global Military Power?

      論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-10-18 15:40:02 來源:www.ourpropertyvalue.com 作者:留學作業網

      英國Assignment寫作范文-英國是全球軍事強國嗎?本文是一篇英國留學生Assignment格式范文,主題是關于“英國是全球軍事強國嗎?”這取決于分析英國軍事力量的理論視角。理論視角影響了所使用的“軍事力量”的定義,因此也影響了問題的答案。在Assignment的開頭,作者將討論國際關系中的一個重要學派,現實主義。作者認為,通過這種理論方法來考察英國的軍事力量,可以得出英國不是一個全球軍事力量的結論。這是因為現實主義認為權力是基于物質能力的零和游戲。與其他國家相比,英國的物質能力較弱,因此,如果權力為零和,英國將隨著其他國家獲得權力而失去權力。然后,當分析除物質能力以外的其他因素時,Assignment范文的作者會認為英國實際上是一個全球軍事強國。英國安全機構的成員身份、這些成員身份的影響以及英國軍隊的全球影響力等因素。作者將使用海德利·布爾對全球力量的定義特征來檢驗英國的軍事實力。這需要英國學校的方法,作者認為這比現實主義方法更合適,因為它考慮到了軍隊在不斷變化的全球環境中的作用,例如國際機構的重要性、人道主義干預的作用以及需要英國在國外施加軍事影響的新出現的安全挑戰。下面就一起來看一下這篇英國留學生Assignment格式范文的全部內容。

      英國Assignment寫作格式范文

      The answer to the question ‘Is the UK a global military power?’ depends on the theoretical lens through which one analyses the UK’s military power. The theoretical perspective affects the definition of ‘military power’ that is used and therefore the answer to the question. At the beginning of this essay I will discuss a prominent school of thought within International Relations, Realism. I will argue that examining the UK’s military power through this theoretical approach provides the conclusion that the UK is not a global military power. This is because realism considers power as a zero-sum game based on material capabilities. The UK’s material capabilities are weaker when compared to that of other states and therefore if power is zero-sum the UK loses power as other states gain it. I will then argue that the UK is in fact a global military power when factors other than material capabilities are analysed. Factors such as the UK’s membership of security institutions, the implications of these memberships and the UK military’s global reach and influence. I will use Hedley Bull’s defining characteristics of a global power to examine the UK’s military strength. This requires an English School approach, which I believe to be more appropriate than the Realist approach as it takes into consideration the role of the military in a changing global environment e.g. The importance of international institutions, the role of humanitarian intervention and emerging security challenges that require British military influence abroad.
      Defining what a ‘global military power’ is fundamental to answering this question. The literature often conflates military power with the status of a global power more generally. For example, military capability and thus power, is a country’s ability to defend itself against threats, both foreign and domestic, as well as pursuing interests despite competing interests from other actors (Tellis, 2000).  Military power is considered in this instance as the product of national power, hence the status of global power being synonymous with military power. This can make it difficult to distinctly define if a state is a global military power therefore it is simpler to measure military power rather than to define it. As previously mentioned measuring military power depends on the theoretical approach taken. This is why I will be using two different notions of military power. I will begin by discussing the realist approach.
      定義什么是“全球軍事力量”是回答這個問題的根本。文學作品通常將軍事力量與更普遍的全球力量的地位混為一談。例如,軍事能力以及由此產生的權力是一個國家抵御國內外威脅的能力,以及不顧其他行為者的利益沖突而追求利益的能力。在這種情況下,軍事力量被視為國家力量的產物,因此全球力量的地位與軍事力量同義。這使得很難明確界定一個國家是否是全球軍事力量,因此衡量軍事力量比界定軍事力量更簡單。如前所述,衡量軍事力量取決于所采用的理論方法。這就是為什么我將使用兩種不同的軍事力量概念。我將首先討論現實主義方法。
      Mearsheimer, in his book ‘The tragedy of great power politics’, states that global powers have offensive military capabilities and that military power is measured in relation to the weaponry a state possesses (Mearsheimer, 2001). Immediately, the material military power a state possesses is an indicator of its status as a global military power. Therefore, I will use the assertion by Mearsheimer that ‘a state’s effective power is ultimately a function of its military forces and how they compare with the military forces of rival states’ (Mearsheimer, 2001, 55) as the key indicator of military power from a realist perspective. The international relations scholar Kenneth Waltz also asserts that a great power is one which holds material superiority over others, reasserting that material military capabilities are an important indicator of power status (Morris, 2011).
      米爾斯海默(Mearsheimer)在他的《大國政治的悲劇》(The crature of great power politics)一書中指出,全球大國具有進攻性軍事能力,軍事力量是根據一個國家擁有的武器來衡量的(米爾斯海姆,2001)。立即,一個國家擁有的物質軍事力量是其作為全球軍事力量地位的標志。因此,我將使用米爾斯海默的主張,即“一個國家的有效權力最終取決于其軍事力量,以及如何與敵對國家的軍事力量進行比較”,作為現實主義視角下軍事權力的關鍵指標。國際關系學者肯尼斯·沃爾茨(Kenneth Waltz)還斷言,大國是指擁有物質優勢的大國,并重申物質軍事能力是衡量大國地位的重要指標。
      The ‘Global Fire Power’ website provides a ‘power index’ whereby countries are given a score as a result of their; air, sea and land forces, strength of infrastructure, resilience of economy and defensible territory. This rating provides an indicator of where the UK ranks in terms of its potential to ‘wage a prolonged campaign against another’ state (Globalfirepower.com, 2017). Much of this score is based upon numerical data relating to physical capabilities such as total aircraft strength, total naval assets, army personnel as well defence spending and natural resources (petroleum). The UK ranks 6 in the world on this index below France, China, Russia, India and the United States (Globalfirepower.com, 2017). Maintaining a realist perspective indicates that the UK is not a global military power in comparison to the five states which supersede its power. This is because power that is acquired relatively is more significant than absolute gain (Waltz, 1959). In other words, analysing the UK’s military power in relation to other states is more indicative of its global position than if it were to be analysed in isolation to other states, according to realist theory. This is the assertion that power is a zero-sum game, which means as one actor gains power other actors immediately lose power. Therefore, as other states rank above the UK using this power index the UK is immediately rendered weaker than the states above it (Powell, 1991).
      “全球火力”網站提供了一個“力量指數”,根據該指數,各國將根據其實力得分;海陸空三軍、基礎設施實力、經濟恢復力和防御性領土。這一評級提供了一個指標,表明英國在“與另一個州展開長期斗爭”的潛力方面排名何處。大部分分數是基于與物理能力相關的數字數據,如飛機總兵力、海軍總資產、陸軍人員以及國防開支和自然資源(石油)。英國在該指數上排名世界第6位,低于法國、中國、俄羅斯、印度和美國。保持現實主義的觀點表明,與取代其權力的五個國家相比,英國不是一個全球軍事大國。這是因為相對獲得的權力比絕對收益更重要。換言之,根據現實主義理論,分析英國相對于其他國家的軍事力量,比孤立于其他國家進行分析更能表明其全球地位。這就是權力是一個零和游戲的斷言,這意味著當一個參與者獲得權力時,其他參與者立即失去權力。因此,當其他國家使用該權力指數排名高于英國時,英國立即變得比其上的國家更弱。
      Significantly, the power index does not include the UK’s nuclear capabilities which are part of its military power as nuclear weapons spending falls under the defence budget of the UK. The Royal United Services Institute claimed in 2013 that the UK’s submarine and deterrent spending would account for 35% of defence spending by 2020/21 (Chalmers, 2013). The UK’s nuclear capabilities are significant as the UK is one of only nine countries in the world that possess nuclear weapons. Nevertheless, if the UK’s military power is relative then the fact that the UK as of March 2016 only possessed 215 nuclear weapons in comparison to Russia’s 7000 and the US’s 6,800 (Ploughshares Fund, 2017), proves that the UK is powerful due to its nuclear capacity in absolute gain but is not powerful relatively.
      值得注意的是,由于核武器支出屬于英國國防預算的范疇,實力指數不包括作為英國軍事力量一部分的英國核能力。英國皇家聯合服務研究所(Royal United Services Institute)于2013年聲稱,到2020年至2021年,英國的潛艇和威懾開支將占國防開支的35%。英國的核能力非常重要,因為英國是世界上僅有的九個擁有核武器的國家之一。然而,如果英國的軍事力量是相對的,那么截至2016年3月,英國僅擁有215件核武器,而俄羅斯擁有7000件,美國擁有6800件,這一事實證明,英國之所以強大,是因為其核能力絕對增加,但相對而言并不強大。       
      My argument is that the English School approach is a superior lens through which this question can be answered. This is because it not only acknowledges the importance of power and how it is distributed but it also brings attention to other factors (Morris, 2011). In this section I will examine the UK’s military power using the definition of a great power put forward by Hedley Bull as well as the concept of ‘legalised hegemony’ and the UK’s global reach and influence.  This definition and other considerations allows for a more holistic approach for examining the UK’s position as a global military power.
      我的觀點是,英語學校的方法是一個很好的視角,通過它可以回答這個問題。這是因為它不僅承認權力的重要性及其分配方式,而且還引起了對其他因素的關注。在本節中,我將使用Hedley Bull提出的大國定義以及“合法化霸權”的概念和英國的全球影響力來研究英國的軍事力量。這一定義和其他考慮因素允許采用更全面的方法來審查英國作為全球軍事大國的地位。
      Hedley Bull in his 1977 book ‘The Anarchical Society: A study of order in world politics’, describes the role of great powers and thus what makes them ‘great’. It is important to note that the application of the various aspects of this definition to characteristics of the UK’s military power overlap with each other in terms of where they fit into the definition. Firstly, he states that the country must be one of a collection of states of comparable power (Bull, 1977). The UK’s membership of NATO is an indicator of its comparability with other military powers in the world. The UK is one of the 5 of the 28 countries in the alliance that meets its defence spending target. NATO members are required to spend at least 2% of their GDP on defence, the UK spent £60.3 billion on defence in 2016 (Economist.com, 2017). This is similar to the spending of other European states that met their 2% target e.g. Germany, France and Greece (Economist.com, 2017). This indicates that the UK is economically capable of funding its military to similar levels as other states which have a similar size and GDP. NATO states that for a state to become a member it must be in position to ‘further the principles of this Treaty and to contribute to the security of the North Atlantic area.’ (Nato.int, 2017). This indicates that the UK has both the political but most importantly the military capability to contribute to NATO’s aim of maintaining the freedom and security of the North Atlantic area. This is a symbol that the UK is of comparable military power to other member states within this powerful alliance. The next two aspects of Bull’s definition, when applied to the UK, reiterate the point that the country is of comparable military power to other global powers through its membership of highly influential institutions and ability to reach and intervene in a majority of conflicts across the globe.
      海德利·布爾在1977年出版的《無政府主義社會:世界政治秩序研究》一書中描述了大國的作用,并由此描述了大國之所以“偉大”的原因。值得注意的是,該定義的各個方面對英國軍事力量特征的應用在其適用范圍方面相互重疊。首先,他指出,該國必須是一個實力相當的國家集合。英國加入北約是其與世界其他軍事大國可比性的一個指標。英國是北約28個達到國防支出目標的國家中的5個之一。北約成員國必須將至少2%的國內生產總值用于國防,2016年英國國防支出603億英鎊。這與其他達到2%目標的歐洲國家的支出類似,例如德國、法國和希臘。這表明,英國在經濟上有能力為其軍事提供與其他規模和GDP相似的國家相似的資金。北約表示,一個國家要成為成員國,就必須能夠“推進該條約的原則,并為北大西洋地區的安全作出貢獻”。這表明,英國具有政治能力,但最重要的是軍事能力,可以為北約維護北大西洋地區自由與安全的目標作出貢獻。這標志著英國的軍事實力可以與這個強大聯盟中的其他成員國相媲美。布爾定義的下兩個方面,當應用于英國時,重申了這一點,即該國擁有與其他全球大國相當的軍事實力,因為它是具有高度影響力的機構的成員,有能力接觸和干預全球大多數沖突。
      Secondly, Bull asserts that the state should be in the top classification of states in terms of military strength to be considered a global power (Bull, 1977). This is when the realist perspective, in terms of material capabilities, comes into play within the English School perspective. As previously noted, the UK is number 6 on the power index according to Global Fire Power (Globalfirepower.com, 2017). Most notably, a recent article published by the UK Defence Review stated that a study carried out by European Geostrategy characterised the UK as a ‘Global Power’, only second behind the US which was labelled a ‘Superpower’ (Allison, 2017). The article references military capabilities and operations as the cause of the classification.  Not only does this categorise the UK as a global military power it also places it in the top rank of countries in terms of military strength. The study claimed the UK is a ‘A country lacking the heft or comprehensive attributes of a superpower, but still with a wide international footprint and [military] means to reach most geopolitical theatres, particularly the Middle East, South-East Asia, East Asia, Africa and South America.’(Allison, 2017). The article also referenced the UK’s membership of NATO and the United Nations Security Council, as well as military interventions and operations carried out by the UK such as operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. (Allison, 2017)
      其次,布爾認為,就軍事實力而言,該州應該是最高級別的國家,才能被視為全球強國。就物質能力而言,這正是現實主義視角在英國學派視角中發揮作用的時候。如前所述,根據Global Fire power,英國在電力指數上排名第六。最值得注意的是,《英國國防評論》(UK Defense Review)最近發表的一篇文章指出,歐洲地緣戰略(European Geostrategy)開展的一項研究將英國描述為“全球大國”,僅次于被稱為“超級大國”的美國。文章提到軍事能力和軍事行動是分類的原因。這不僅將英國歸類為全球軍事強國,而且還將其列為軍事實力最強的國家。該研究稱,英國是一個“缺乏超級大國的分量或綜合屬性的國家,但仍擁有廣泛的國際足跡和(軍事)手段,可以觸及大多數地緣政治領域,尤其是中東、東南亞、東亞、非洲和南美洲?!?。文章還提到了英國加入北約和聯合國安理會的情況,以及英國進行的軍事干預和行動,如在伊拉克和阿富汗的行動。
      Thirdly and most significantly, Bull claims that global powers have certain rights and duties that are internationally recognised by other states and actors but also by their own leaders and citizens (Bull, 1977). The most recognisable manifestation of this characteristic, in the case of the UK, is the state’s permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council (UNSC). The UNSC primary aim is to deal with threats to peace. The council has various means of doing this including diplomatic and economic solutions, but it also issues directives for peacekeeping operations, accommodating ceasefires, dispatching military observers and initiating collective military action (Un.org, 2017). The UK’s ability to veto and vote on the council is a right, as described by Bull, that is unique to only the permanent five members of the council. This has given the UK influence over key military decisions allowing for the expansion of influence and power. For example, in 2011 the UK voted in favour of conducting airstrikes against the Gaddafi regime in Libya. This was a call for military action within a sovereign state, a crucial indicator of the UK’s military power through intervention.
      第三,也是最重要的一點,布爾聲稱,全球大國擁有某些國際公認的權利和義務,這些權利和義務不僅得到其他國家和行動者的承認,而且也得到其領導人和公民的承認(。就英國而言,這一特點最明顯的表現就是該國在聯合國安全理事會(UNSC)中的常任理事國席位。聯合國安理會的主要目標是處理對和平的威脅。安理會有各種各樣的手段來做到這一點,包括外交和經濟解決辦法,但它也發布維持和平行動指令,調節?;?,派遣軍事觀察員和發起集體軍事行動。正如布爾所描述的那樣,英國對安理會的否決權和投票權是一項權利,只有五個常任理事國才享有這項權利。這賦予了英國對關鍵軍事決策的影響力,從而擴大了影響力和權力。例如,2011年,英國投票贊成對利比亞的卡扎菲政權進行空襲。這是對主權國家內部采取軍事行動的呼吁,是英國通過干預獲得軍事力量的重要指標。
      Special duties are another aspect of Bull’s definition. Special duties carried out by the UK include humanitarian intervention. Broadly defined, humanitarian intervention requires the use of a country’s military power in the form of armed force to end a humanitarian crisis in another state (Opil.ouplaw.com, 2011). The modern concept has encompassed other justifications for humanitarian intervention such as the need to bring about peace, stabilise a region and end human rights abuses (Opil.ouplaw.com, 2011). In 2011 the UK was a key supporter of UNSC resolution 1973 which authorized intervention in Libya on humanitarian grounds (United Nations Security Council, 2011). In 2015 the UK began carrying out airstrikes in Iraq and Syria with the goal of defeating ISIS along with a coalition of other states led by the US. A country must have the military capability to intervene in another state on humanitarian grounds as it requires use of material military. This indicates that the UK has the significant material military power to do this.
      特殊職責是公牛定義的另一個方面。英國履行的特殊職責包括人道主義干預。廣義的人道主義干預要求以武裝力量的形式使用一個國家的軍事力量來結束另一個州的人道主義危機?,F代概念包含了人道主義干預的其他理由,例如需要實現和平、穩定地區和結束侵犯人權行為。2011年,英國是聯合國安理會第1973號決議的主要支持者,該決議授權基于人道主義理由對利比亞進行干預。2015年,英國開始在伊拉克和敘利亞進行空襲,目標是與美國領導的其他國家聯盟一起擊敗ISIS。一個國家必須有軍事能力,以人道主義為由干預另一個國家,因為它需要使用物質軍事。這表明英國擁有重要的物質軍事力量來做到這一點。
      Gerry Simpson’s conception of ‘legalised hegemony’ reinforces the argument that the UK is a global military power (Simpson, 2004).  Simpson defines legalised hegemony as the existence of ‘an elite group of states’ within international society that have specific rights, duties and privileges distinct from other states which are considered to have less power (Simpson, 2004, pg. 68). The UK’s seat on the UNSC, membership of NATO and involvement in humanitarian intervention are all evidence of the UK having the military power to be considered a part of this elite group of states. Moreover, the UK’s position within Simpson’s legalised hierarchy compliments Bull’s definition of a great power having special rights and duties.
      杰里·辛普森(Gerry Simpson)的“合法化霸權”概念進一步證明了英國是一個全球軍事強國的論點。辛普森將合法化霸權定義為國際社會中存在的“精英國家集團”,這些國家擁有不同于其他被認為權力較小的國家的特定權利、義務和特權。英國在聯合國安理會中的席位、北約成員國身份以及參與人道主義干預,都證明英國擁有被視為這一精英國家集團一部分的軍事力量。此外,英國在辛普森合法化的等級制度中的地位,與布爾對擁有特殊權利和義務的大國的定義相得益彰。       
      The global reach of a country’s military is a critical variable in assessing military power. The ability for a country to maintain and build a presence in all four corners of the globe is a accurate indicator of its power. The UK has overseas defence facilities in 10 countries across the globe (Allison, 2017) allowing the UK to have a presence in areas of strategic and diplomatic significance e.g. the Falklands, Canada, Brunei, Kenya and Bahrain. This enables the UK to pursue its defence and political interests as well as carry out expeditionary warfare if needed. Moreover, the UK’s overseas territory of the Falkland Islands provides strategic advantage by providing the UK with a military presence in the South Atlantic region. Relatively, the US has defence facilities in 70 countries across the globe but is the only state to have a greater number of overseas defence facilities than the UK (Grunwald, 2015).  The UK’s war in Afghanistan which lasted from 2001 to 2014 is another example of the UK’s ability to maintain a military presence abroad. The UK’s invasion of Iraq in 2003 and subsequent presence lasted until 2011 which is significant evidence of global reach. As the threat of terrorism increases the UK is now a member of the Global Coalition, a group of countries pledged to defeat Daesh. The British Army presently has a non-combat role in Iraq, where it trains and provides equipment to the Iraqi Security Forces of whom it has trained 25,000 in various combat roles (Army.mod.uk, 2017), further indicating the country’s global reach and military power. An analysis of the UK’s military power would not be complete without reference to the Commonwealth. The British Empire formally ended with the transferring of Hong Kong to China in 1997. This signified a new era for the UK as a global power. However, the UK’s military presence in commonwealth countries signifies a level of maintenance of the UK’s once powerful empire.  With deployments of British soldiers in Kenya, Canada, Cyprus and Sierra Leone, the UK’s colonial past may have paved the way for a militarily powerful UK in the present allowing for British influence across the globe.
      一國軍隊的全球影響力是評估軍事力量的關鍵變量。一個國家在全球所有四個角落保持和建立存在的能力是其實力的準確指標。英國在全球10個國家擁有海外防御設施,使英國能夠在具有戰略和外交意義的地區駐扎,例如??颂m群島、加拿大、文萊、肯尼亞和巴林。這使得英國能夠追求其國防和政治利益,并在必要時進行遠征戰。此外,英國??颂m群島的海外領土為英國在南大西洋地區提供了軍事存在,從而提供了戰略優勢。相對而言,美國在全球70個國家擁有國防設施,但它是唯一一個擁有比英國更多海外國防設施的國家。2001年至2014年英國在阿富汗的戰爭是英國在海外維持軍事存在能力的另一個例子。英國于2003年入侵伊拉克,隨后一直持續到2011年,這是全球影響力的重要證據。隨著恐怖主義威脅的加劇,英國現在成為全球聯盟的成員,一組國家承諾要擊敗Daesh。英國陸軍目前在伊拉克擔任非戰斗角色,在伊拉克,英國陸軍為伊拉克安全部隊提供訓練和裝備,英國陸軍已訓練了25000名伊拉克安全部隊的各種戰斗角色,這進一步表明了英國的全球影響力和軍事實力。如果不參考英聯邦,對英國軍事力量的分析是不完整的。1997年,香港回歸中國,大英帝國正式結束。這標志著英國作為一個全球大國進入了一個新時代。然而,英國在英聯邦國家的軍事存在意味著英國曾經強大的帝國得到了一定程度的維護。隨著英國士兵在肯尼亞、加拿大、塞浦路斯和塞拉利昂的部署,英國的殖民歷史可能已經為目前軍事強大的英國鋪平了道路,允許英國在全球范圍內發揮影響力。
      In conclusion, the UK is a global military power when analysed from an English School perspective. When Hedley Bull’s three main characteristics of a global power are applied to the UK the answer is such. Various sources including the power index created by Global Fire Power and the European Geostrategy study claim that the UK is amongst the most powerful states in the world in terms of material capabilities. The UK’s membership of NATO and its seat on the UNSC reiterate its influential position as a military power capable of intervening and being present in conflicts and locations around the globe. The UK’s global reach through its overseas military presence and overseas territories adds further strength to its military. It is evident that when military power is considered from a realist perspective the full range of indicators of military strength are not considered. Focusing on material capabilities exclusively negates the affect intervention, presence, reach and influence have on a country’s military power.
      Assignment范文總結,從英國學派的角度分析,英國是一個全球軍事大國。當海德利·布爾關于全球力量的三個主要特征應用于英國時,答案就是這樣。包括全球火力(Global Fire power)和歐洲地緣戰略研究(European Geostrategy study)創建的電力指數在內的各種消息來源都聲稱,就物質能力而言,英國是世界上最強大的國家之一。英國作為北約成員國及其在聯合國安理會中的席位重申了英國作為一個軍事大國的影響力,它能夠干預和參與全球各地的沖突和地點。英國通過海外軍事存在和海外領土的全球影響力進一步增強了其軍事實力。顯然,當從現實主義的角度考慮軍事力量時,不考慮軍事力量的所有指標。專注于物質能力完全否定了干預、存在、范圍和影響對國家軍事力量的影響。本站提供各國各專業Assignment寫作指導服務,如有需要可咨詢本平臺。

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