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      International Relations Essay寫作范文:Effect of Gender Studies on Understanding International Relations

      論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-10-22 13:44:50 來源:www.ourpropertyvalue.com 作者:留學作業網

      International Relations Essay寫作范文-性別研究對理解國際關系的影響。本文是一篇留學生International Relations專業的Essay范文,主要內容是根據辛西婭·恩洛伊的說法,“性別使世界旋轉”。在說明你對Enloe聲明的看法時,解釋性別研究在多大程度上改變了我們對國際關系的理解。 在Essay寫作范文的第一部分,作者將提供對Enloe的著名陳述“性別使世界旋轉”的觀點,然后將介紹兩本作業認為改變了我們對國際關系(IR)理解的出版物?!芭畽嘀髁x通常采用自下而上而不是自上而下的分析;從個人和群體的角度開始調查,它詢問國家和其所處的國際結構如何影響人們的生活?!迸畽嘀髁x者努力調查地方和全球之間的聯系。下面請參考這篇International Relations Essay寫作范文。

      Essay寫作格式范文

      “Gender makes the world go round” according to Cynthia Enloe (1989). While illustrating your views on Enloe’s statement, explain the extent to which gender studies have changed our understanding of international relations. 

      In the first part of my essay, I will provide my viewpoint on Enloe’s famous statement “Gender makes the world go round,” and then I will present two publications I think have changed our understanding of International Relations (IR). 

      “Feminism generally employs bottom-up, rather than top-down, analysis; starting its investigations from the perspectives of individuals and groups, it asks how the state and the international structures in which it is embedded impact people’s lives (Tickner 2014).” Feminists work diligently to investigate the links between the local and the global. 

      In “Gender makes the world go round,” Enloe inspires the readers to be curious about how the world works and stay motivated asking question “where are the women?” In her work, Enloe supplements her views with female involvements in the past – League of Nations secretaries and librarians systematically archiving and compiling documents, Brazilian Hollywood actress Carmen Miranda used cleverly to strengthen diplomatic ties between the United States and Latin America within the 1930s and sex workers at military bases. Elite men in the office often overlooked their female secretaries and treated them no more than a piece of furniture. Without women’s contribution in the past, the world might have been in a different situation as it is now. Enloe asks readers to look for where women are in our everyday life. As Jacqui True (2005) points out, “it is not that women have not been present or their experiences relevant to international relations. Rather, as Cynthia Enloe’s (1989, 1994, 2000) scholarship demonstrates, women are and have always been part of international relations – if we choose to see them there.” 

      在《性別使世界運轉》中,Enloe鼓勵讀者對世界如何運轉感到好奇,并通過提問“女性在哪里?”保持動力在她的作品中,Enloe補充了她對過去女性參與的觀點——國際聯盟秘書和圖書管理員系統地歸檔和匯編文件,巴西好萊塢女演員卡門·米蘭達(Carmen Miranda)在20世紀30年代巧妙地利用了這一點來加強美國和拉丁美洲的外交關系,以及軍事基地的性工作者。辦公室里的精英們常常忽視女秘書,把她們當作一件家具。如果過去沒有婦女的貢獻,世界可能會與現在不同。Enloe要求讀者尋找女性在我們日常生活中的位置。正如Jacqui True所指出的那樣,“并不是因為女性沒有出現,也不是因為她們的經歷與國際關系有關。相反,正如辛西婭·恩洛伊的學術研究所表明的那樣,如果我們選擇在國際關系中看到女性,那么女性現在是而且一直是國際關系的一部分?!?/p>

      Beginning with the women’s suffrage movement back in the eighteenth century, women wanted their voices to be heard, a century later, they started to form their groups across the Internet and through collaborations. Enloe also indicates that even when women start to form transnational organizations conducting analyses, their contribution is still often ignored – they are not given credit. In other words, they are still not being taken seriously. The implication of Enlow’s work is that there is gender inequality. 

      從18世紀的婦女選舉權運動開始,婦女希望自己的聲音被聽到,一個世紀后,她們開始通過互聯網和合作組建自己的團體。Enloe還指出,即使婦女開始組建跨國組織進行分析,她們的貢獻仍然常常被忽視——她們沒有得到認可。換句話說,他們仍然沒有得到認真對待。Enlow工作的含義是存在性別不平等。

      In IR & in global politics 國際關系與全球政治

      “One argument is that Western philosophy as practice has been monopolized by elite males; as subject matter it has constructed ‘men’s nature’ as human nature and focused on ‘men’s public-sphere concerns (politics, justice, universal truth); and as an institution it has reproduced the authority and legitimation of patriarchal experience and world view (Peterson 1992, p.12).’’ IR has been “excessively focused on conflict and anarchy and a way of practising statecraft and formulating strategy that is excessively focused in competition and fear (True cited Grant and Newland 1991, 2005). In addition to IR had been a male-dominated discipline, women were – or even now are – underrepresented in global policy-making (Sjoberg and Tickner 2011), which, in my view, is somewhat irrational. Nigerian writer Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie suggests in her work (2014) that the higher you go, the fewer women there are. Taking words from Aristotle, Peterson (1992, p.11) claims, “women’s work” in the domestic sphere is not peripheral to but a necessary condition of “men’s work” in the public sphere. Have scholars and politicians long been forgetful how they achieve where they are – would they be there in the classrooms teaching or in congress hall or parliament making decisions without the support from their mothers or wives taking care of the chores and children so that he could stand there? Or even would they achieve where they are now if their mothers did not give birth to them in the first place? 

      “一種觀點認為,西方哲學作為實踐已經被精英男性壟斷;作為主題,它將'人的本性'構建為人性,并關注'人的公共領域關切(政治、正義、普遍真理);作為一種制度,它再現了父權經驗和世界觀的權威和合法性“國際關系”一直“過度關注沖突和無政府狀態,是一種實踐治國之道和制定戰略的方式,過度關注競爭和恐懼。除了國際關系一直是男性主導的學科外,女性在全球決策中的代表性不足在我看來,這有點不合理。尼日利亞作家奇馬曼達·恩戈齊·阿迪奇(Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie)在她的作品中指出,你越高,女性就越少。借用亞里士多德的話,彼得森聲稱,家庭領域的“婦女工作”并非是公共領域“男子工作”的外圍條件,而是必要條件。學者和政治家們是否長期以來忘記了他們是如何取得成就的——他們會在教室里教學,還是在國會大廳或議會里做決定,而沒有母親或妻子的支持,照顧家務和孩子,讓他站在那里?或者,如果他們的母親一開始沒有生下他們,他們會達到現在的水平嗎?

      Tickner draws ideas from Jane Flax and suggests (2001, p.16) that, “while feminism is about recovering women’s activities, it must also be aware of how these activities are situated. Therefore, gender is not just about women: it is also about men and masculinity.” Gender is socially constructed (Butler 1999; Peterson 1999). Judith Butler (1999) draws ideas from her “ One is not born a woman, but, rather becomes one, ” Beauvoir also claims gender is constructed. Starting from knowing the sex of a child in the womb, one picks out what color for the child’s bedroom – blue for boys and pink for girls – to gifting the newborns – boys play toy cars and Legos and girls play Barbie dolls and playhouse set, a series set of stereotypes come in. Before being born, one’s destiny is manipulated by stereotype generated by society; after being born, the situation only worsens – it branches out to one’s occupations and sexual preferences. Of course, there are exceptions throughout history, for example, Mrs Margaret Thatcher being the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the 1970s to 1990s. However, during her term, she had to lower her pitch when speaking in public so that she could be taken seriously. 

      蒂克納從簡·弗拉克斯那里汲取了一些想法,并建議,“雖然女權主義是關于恢復婦女的活動,但它也必須意識到這些活動是如何進行的。因此,性別不僅與婦女有關:它還與男子和男子氣概有關?!毙詣e是社會建構的。朱迪思·巴特勒從她的觀點中得出了“一個人不是天生的女人,而是成為一個女人”的觀點,波伏娃還聲稱性別是構建的。從了解孩子在子宮中的性別開始,我們可以選擇孩子臥室的顏色——男孩是藍色,女孩是粉紅色——給新生兒禮物——男孩玩玩具汽車和樂高玩具,女孩玩芭比娃娃和玩具屋,一系列的刻板印象出現了。在出生之前,一個人的命運受到社會產生的刻板印象的操縱;出生后,情況只會惡化——它會擴展到一個人的職業和性偏好。當然,歷史上也有例外,例如,瑪格麗特·撒切爾夫人在20世紀70年代至90年代擔任英國首相。然而,在她的任期內,她不得不降低公開演講的聲調,這樣她才能被認真對待。

      Gender inequality results from two reasons – patriarchy and language. 性別不平等有兩個原因——父權制和語言

      Patriarchy 父權制

      “The types of women that our society has produced in the past, the roles they have played or failed to play, sprang from the dictates and expectations of men. Women have been largely man-made, and even today numerous psychological studies have revealed that women and girls are still more dependent on social approval than men (Fige 1986, p.15).” Figes goes on and suggests that man has been required to live up to an image, made for him by his father, of fitting what you want into his own desire; on the other hand, a woman is taught to fit whatever her father and all men find desirable in a woman. That is, not what she is, but she ought to be. Moreover, chivalry shapes the idea that women need to be protected by men. But in fact, what women need are support and respect. 

      “我們社會過去產生的女性類型,她們所扮演的角色或未能扮演的角色,都源于男性的要求和期望。女性在很大程度上是人為的,即使在今天,許多心理學研究表明,女性和女孩仍然比男性更依賴于社會認可”?!胺萍估^續指出,人們被要求不辜負父親為他塑造的形象,將你想要的東西融入自己的欲望中;另一方面,一個女人被教導去適應她父親和所有男人對女人的期望。那不是她是什么,而是她應該是什么。此外,騎士精神塑造了女性需要男性保護的觀念。但事實上,女性需要的是支持和尊重。

      Language 語言

      The other culprit is language itself. Having long been accused of some kind of danger – a witch, demoness, scarlet woman, schemer, women are oppressed for a long time (Figes 1986). “Feminists influenced by constructivist theories of the rules of discourse within language tend to see gender as a hegemonic discourse of difference that is reproduced through institutionalized norms and identities rather than material structures” (True 2008). Long before the gender stereotype is shaped, as Bowden and Mummery (2009, p.34) put it, “it is clear that language encodes what is important to people and provides the means for them to articulate their understanding of what is significant.” Thus, feminists started an attack on words; there was a movement “the great he/she battle ” in the 1990s. Led by American literary theorist Jane Hedley, the aim of the battle is for equal opportunity between two sexes. 

      另一個罪魁禍首是語言本身。長期以來,人們一直被指責存在某種危險——女巫、惡魔、猩紅女人、陰謀家,婦女長期受到壓迫?!笆苷Z言內話語規則建構主義理論影響的女權主義者傾向于將性別視為通過制度化規范和身份而非物質結構再現的差異性霸權話語”。早在性別刻板印象形成之前,正如Bowden和Mummery所說,“很明顯,語言編碼了對人們重要的內容,并為他們提供了表達對重要內容理解的手段?!币虼?,女權主義者開始攻擊文字;上世紀90年代有一場運動“偉大的他/她戰斗”。由美國文學理論家簡·赫德利(Jane Hedley)領導,這場戰爭的目標是男女機會平等。

      By establishing a new and equal discourse, women would be better understood and better expressed. Australian scholar Dale Spender delves into the sexism in language, she suggests in her work Man Made Language (1980), “the English language has been literarily man-made and that it is still primarily under man control (Bowden and Mummery 2009 cited Spender 1980). ” Tickner also points out that, “since it is language that transmits knowledge, the use of language and its claims of objectivity must continually be questioned (2014, p.6). ” 

      通過建立新的平等對話,婦女將得到更好的理解和表達。澳大利亞學者戴爾·斯賓德(Dale Spender)深入研究了語言中的性別歧視問題,她在其著作《人造語言》中指出,“英語在文學上是人造的,它仍然主要由男性控制?!钡倏思{還指出,“由于語言傳遞知識,語言的使用及其客觀性的主張必須不斷受到質疑?!?/p>

      Linguist Deborah Tannen (1991) studies how women and men tend to think and how they converse in everyday life, inside and outside households and how they react to different events. She suggests that to reach gender equality it should start at home. “Patriarchy is the structural and ideological system that perpetuates the privileging of masculinity (Enloe 2004).” Enloe (2017) highlights that globalized patriarchy may be responsible for the wage gap between females and males for similar work. Often we can see it on news that which Hollywood actor is paid how many times more than a Hollywood actress starring in the same film. If I could wipe out human history and rewrite it all over, I would start it with a new language system and get rid of all the linguistic labelings. 

      語言學家Deborah Tannen(1991)研究了女性和男性在日常生活中如何思考和交談,家庭內外以及他們對不同事件的反應。她建議,要實現性別平等,應該從家庭開始?!案笝嘀剖且环N結構和意識形態體系,它使男性的特權永久化?!盓nloe強調,全球化的父權制可能是導致類似工作中男女工資差距的原因。我們經??梢栽谛侣勚锌吹?,哪位好萊塢演員的片酬是在同一部電影中出演的好萊塢女演員的多倍。如果我能抹去人類歷史并重寫它,我會用一個新的語言系統開始,并去掉所有的語言標簽。

      What changed our understanding of IR? 什么改變了我們對IR的理解?

      Although Jones contends that It seems to me that it is J. Ann Tickner’s Hans Morgenthau’s Principles of Political Realism (1988) and Cynthia Enloe’s Bananas, Beaches, and Bases (1989) that changed how people had viewed IR. Christine Sylvester (2002) speaks highly of Jean Bethke Elshtain, Cynthia Enloe and Ann Tickner among many other influential feminists in her Feminist International Relations and carefully analyzes their works – Women and War by Elshtain, Bananas, Beaches, and Bases by Enloe, and Gendering in International Relations by Tickner – respectively in the introduction. 

      盡管瓊斯認為,在我看來,正是J·安·蒂克納的《漢斯·摩根索的政治現實主義原則》和辛西婭·恩洛的《香蕉、海灘和基地》改變了人們對國際關系的看法。Christine Sylvester高度評價了Jean Bethke Elshtain、Cynthia Enloe和Ann Tickner等其他在女性主義國際關系中有影響力的女權主義者,并在導言中分別仔細分析了他們的作品——Elshtaine的《婦女與戰爭》、Enloe的《香蕉、海灘和基地》以及Tickner的《國際關系中的性別化》。

      J. Ann Tickner 

      In Sylvester’s words, she suggests that (2002, p.13), “Tickner is a specialist in IR who recognizes its shortcomings and wants to infuse the field with feminist sensitivity” 

      Tickner (2014) identifies and criticizes why IR is perceived as a masculine field is greatly under the influence of Hans Morgenthau’s six political principles of realism. In spite of recognizing Morgenthau is not incorrect in his view in presenting his work, Tickner believes the piece is merely a description based on assumptions about human nature and morality associated with masculinity. 

      用Sylvester的話來說,她建議,“Tickner是國際關系領域的專家,他認識到它的缺點,并希望在該領域注入女權主義的敏感性?!盩ickner指出并批評了為什么國際關系被視為男性領域在很大程度上受到漢斯·摩根索現實主義六項政治原則的影響。盡管承認摩根索在介紹他的作品時的觀點并不正確,但蒂克納認為這篇文章只是基于對人性和與男性氣質相關的道德的假設的描述。

      Cynthia Enloe. 

      As Peterson claims (1992, p.11), “what counts as knowledge must be grounded on experience. Human experience differs according to the kinds of activities and social relations in which humans engage. Not only feminists but theorists of other marginalized groups-e.g., colonized populations, racial and ethnic minorities, the underclass- argue that knowledge claims about humans that are based upon only the partial experiences of elites are simply inaccurate: they, in fact, distort our understanding of actual social relations.” First published in the 1990s, Enloe’s Bananas, Beaches, and Bases looks into women experiences in all walks of lives – from diplomat’s wives to Carmen Miranda to base women to sex workers. Speaking from an empirical feminist, Enloe cleverly weaves women’s experiences into sophisticated politics and analyzes it through the feminist lens in an easy-to-understand language so that readers can grasp and easily understand what she tries to convey – women are actually there. Sylvester summarizes Enloe’s work as followed (1992), “Enloe offers glimpses of women engaged in liberal exchanges and reciprocities that should figure into realist theories of international relations, but do not.” 

      正如Peterson所聲稱的, “知識必須以經驗為基礎。人類的經驗根據人類參與的活動類型和社會關系而有所不同。不僅女權主義者,其他邊緣化群體(如殖民地人口、種族和少數民族、下層階級)的理論家都認為,關于人類的知識主張僅基于人類的部分經驗事實上,他們扭曲了我們對實際社會關系的理解?!倍髀逡恋摹断憬?、海灘和基地》于20世紀90年代首次出版,它探討了各行各業的女性經歷——從外交官的妻子到卡門·米蘭達,從基地女性到性工作者。從經驗女權主義者的角度講,恩洛伊巧妙地將女性的經歷編織成復雜的政治,并通過女權主義視角以易于理解的語言對其進行分析,以便讀者能夠理解和理解她試圖傳達的內容——女性實際上就在那里。Sylvester總結了Enloe的工作如下,“Enloe提供了一些參與自由交流和互惠的女性,這些應該成為國際關系的現實主義理論,但不是?!?/p>

      If Tickner changes how we perceive IR in theory, then Enloe changes it in practice. As a scholar, a feminist, an activist, a world-traveler, Enloe has been encouraging readers of her publications to stay curious in spite of taking a lot of energy and to keep on investigating and asking questions. She has traveled around the world to search for where the women are and she brings those experiences she witnesses into her scholarship. Her publications continuously echo her famous “Gender makes the world go round.” 

      如果Tickner在理論上改變了我們對IR的看法,那幺Enloe在實踐中改變了它。作為一名學者、一名女權主義者、一名活動家、一名世界旅行家,Enloe一直在鼓勵她的出版物的讀者保持好奇心,盡管花費了大量精力,并繼續調查和提問。她周游世界,尋找女性所在的地方,并將她所見證的經歷帶到她的獎學金中。她的出版物不斷呼應她著名的“性別使世界旋轉”

      In We Should All Be Feminists (2014), the writer argues that humankind has evolved, but our understanding of gender has not. Tickner highlights (2001), “working for gender inequality is deemed impossible by many feminists because, definitionally, gender signifies relationships of inequality. Rather, feminists should work toward making gender visible in order to move beyond its oppressive dynamics.” 

      International Relations Essay寫作范文提出在《我們都應該是女權主義者》中,作者認為人類已經進化,但我們對性別的理解還沒有。Tickner highlights,“許多女權主義者認為,為性別不平等而努力是不可能的,因為從定義上講,性別意味著不平等的關系。相反,女權主義者應該努力讓性別變得可見,以超越其壓迫性動態?!北菊咎峁└鲊鲗IEssay寫作指導服務,如有需要可咨詢本平臺。


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