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      留學生心理學Essay寫作框架:Analysis of 'Counseling: A Comprehensive Profession' by Samuel Gladdings

      論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-05-19 09:33:23 來源:www.ourpropertyvalue.com 作者:留學作業網

      本文是心理學專業的留學生Essay范例,題目是“Analysis of 'Counseling: A Comprehensive Profession' by Samuel Gladdings(《心理咨詢:一門綜合性職業》分析)”,本文討論元認知問卷的編制。研究人員提供了調查問卷是如何開發的詳細步驟。該問卷被稱為獨立學習意識量表(AILI)。

      Meijer et al(2013)認為元認知調節與元認知知識存在差異。元認知調節是指一個人在實際實踐中調節不同認知活動的能力。相反,元認知知識是指一個人成功解決問題的能力。研究人員討論了現有的兩種元認知問卷,包括MAI和MSLQ。MSLQ評估了大學生的動機取向以及學生在學習中如何使用不同的學習策略。相比之下,MAI問卷被研究人員用于成年人和青少年識別元認知學習者。然而,Meijer等人(2013)強調,這兩份問卷并不涉及元認知反應,因此有必要開發AILI來解決元認知反應。

      The article discusses the development of a metacognition questionnaire. The researchers have provided detailed steps on how the questionnaire was developed. The questionnaire was referred to as the Awareness of Independent Learning Inventory (AILI). According to Meijer et al (2013), there is a difference between metacognitive regulation and metacognitive knowledge. Metacognitive regulation refers to a person's ability to regulate different cognitive activities within the actual practice. In contrast, metacognitive knowledge refers to how well a person can solve problems successfully. The researchers discussed two existing metacognitive questionnaires which include the MAI and the MSLQ. The MSLQ assesses the motivational orientation of college students and how the students use different learning strategies in their learning. In contrast, the MAI questionnaire is used by researchers on both adults and adolescents to identify metacognitive learners. However, Meijer et al (2013) emphasize that these two questionnaires do not address metacognitive responsiveness hence there is a need to develop AILI which will address metacognitive responsiveness.

       

      心理學 Essay范例

      The researchers constructed two versions of AILI which include AILI A and AILI B. These two versions of AILI purposed to gauge the metacognition skills of the students across different topics. Three distinct characteristics differentiated AILI from other questionnaires. First, AILI conceptualized three major components which include metacognitive responsiveness, metacognitive regulation, and metacognitive knowledge. Secondly, AILI avoided intertwining metacognitive and cognitive questions. Lastly, AILI considers metacognition to be a trait rather than a state. Besides, the researchers used a faceted design to come with the given questionnaire.

      研究人員構建了兩個版本的“AILI”,包括“AILI A”和“AILI b”。這兩個版本的“AILI”旨在測試學生在不同主題上的元認知技能。AILI與其他問卷有三個顯著差異。首先,AILI概念化了元認知反應、元認知調節和元認知知識三個主要組成部分。其次,避免元認知和認知問題糾纏在一起。最后,AILI認為元認知是一種特征而不是一種狀態。此外,研究人員在問卷中采用了分面設計。

      Before the actual research, the validity and reliability of the AILI questionnaire were tested during the pilot study.

      The researchers administered the AILI questionnaire to 1058 students from different institutes that offers a teaching platform for the teachers in Belgium and the Netherlands. Similarly, another group of 729 students from the University of Maastricht studying Economics and Business Administration was given an English version of the AILI questionnaire. It took the students 25 minutes to fill in the questionnaires. For data analysis, the researchers performed a decision study and a generalizability study. From the study finds, the reliability of the AILI was satisfactory. This was tested using the generalizability study. The findings obtained from the decision study revealed that the components of AILI could be reduced to leave two components of a single dimension of the facet design. Nevertheless, the study findings indicated congruence with the relevant parts of MSLQ and the AILI questionnaire.

      研究人員對1058名來自不同機構的學生進行了AILI問卷調查,這些機構為比利時和荷蘭的教師提供了一個教學平臺。同樣,另一組來自馬斯特里赫特大學(University of Maastricht)學習經濟和工商管理的729名學生也得到了AILI調查問卷的英文版。學生們花了25分鐘來填寫問卷。為了進行數據分析,研究人員進行了決策研究和概括性研究。從研究發現,AILI的信度是令人滿意的。這是通過泛化研究進行的測試。決策研究的結果顯示,AILI的組成部分可以被簡化為一個面設計的單一維度的兩個組成部分。然而,研究結果表明,MSLQ和AILI問卷的相關部分是一致的。

      The study concluded that the AILI questionnaire is valid and reliable tools that can be utilized too measure the metacognitive responsiveness, regulation, and knowledge. Thus, the AILI questionnaire can be utilized to increase metacognitive responsiveness, knowledge, and regulation of higher education students. However, the researchers recommended further research to validate the AILI questionnaire. The researchers agreed that there was a need to use separate scores even though the AILI sub-component score was highly correlated. Also, there are uncertainties about whether there was successful avoidance of intertwinement of metacognition and cognition in the AILI questionnaire.

      Psychology of education focuses on the different ways used by humans to learn and retain important knowledge in a learning set-up. Therefore, the use of psychology in education is interested in social, emotional and cognitive learning. Therefore, a psychologist researching education is likely to focus on testing and teaching methods, learning, and classroom environment, behavioral and social problems. The current article demonstrates psychology in education by focusing on a testing method that is based on psychology. The AILI questionnaire tests metacognition which is a major aspect studied in psychology. About psychology, metacognition refers to "cognition of cognition." This involves regulation and knowledge about cognitive phenomena.

      Different views are given by psychologists who are interested in the field of education. According to Arnold et al (2017), educational psychology is interested in analyzing factors like instructional process, student outcomes, gifted learners and student differences in learning. The modern complex education system has compelled psychologists to work closely with students, administrators and instructors to improve learning outcomes. According to Gascoine, Higgins, and Wall (2017), psychologists working in an educational approach are majorly interested in organizational learning, instructional design, special education, curriculum development, and gifted learners. There are different psychological perspectives used to understand education. The behavioral perspective believes that conditioning facilitates learning of new behaviors. Educational perspectives using this view rely on operant conditioning. The recent view of education is the constructive approach which tries to understand how children construct knowledge of their surroundings. Other psychological views of education include the cognitive perspective and the developmental perspective.

      對教育領域感興趣的心理學家給出了不同的觀點。根據Arnold et al(2017),教育心理學感興趣的是分析諸如教學過程、學生成果、有天賦的學習者和學生學習差異等因素?,F代復雜的教育系統迫使心理學家與學生、管理人員和教師密切合作,以提高學習效果。根據Gascoine, Higgins和Wall(2017),從事教育研究的心理學家主要對組織學習、教學設計、特殊教育、課程開發和天才學習者感興趣。有不同的心理學觀點用來理解教育。行為觀認為,條件作用促進了新行為的學習。使用這種觀點的教育觀點依賴于操作性條件反射。最近的教育觀是一種建設性的方法,它試圖理解孩子們如何構建對周圍環境的知識。其他關于教育的心理學觀點包括認知視角和發展視角。

      Several influential works of different scholars have influenced education psychology. Jerome Bruner is a psychologist who made a great contribution to the cognitive revolution. His work addresses key areas in education which include analytical and intuitive learning, readiness for learning, and the central role of structure in learning and teaching and motives for learning.

      According to Bruner, human beings have a generic coding system that provides them with an ability to reflect and analyze data to obtain useful predictions. Also, David Ausubel is a psychologist whose work is highly influential in education psychology. He came up with an understanding of "advance organizers" to improve knowledge retention and assimilation. According to Couchman et al (2016), educators and teachers have the capability of presenting new knowledge to students in an understandable way. Other influential scholars in educational psychology include Benjamin Bloom, Albert Bandura, and Howard Gardner. The current approach to metacognition questionnaires is different from the previous approaches. The MAI and MSQL questionnaires assess metacognitive regulation and metacognitive knowledge. However, the current approach to metacognition using the AILI questionnaire captures an additional factor which is metacognitive responsiveness. In general, the AILI questionnaire tests the metacognitive regulation, metacognitive knowledge, and metacognitive responsiveness.

      根據Bruner的說法,人類有一個通用的編碼系統,使他們能夠反映和分析數據,從而獲得有用的預測。另外,David Ausubel是一位心理學家,他的工作在教育心理學中有很大的影響力。他提出了“提前組織者”的理解,以提高知識的保留和吸收。根據Couchman et al(2016),教育者和教師有能力以一種可以理解的方式向學生呈現新知識。其他有影響力的學者在教育心理學包括本杰明布魯姆,阿爾伯特班杜拉和霍華德加德納。目前的元認知問卷調查方法不同于以往的方法。MAI和MSQL問卷評估元認知調節和元認知知識。然而,目前使用AILI問卷研究元認知的方法抓住了一個額外的因素,即元認知反應??傮w而言,AILI問卷測試了元認知調節、元認知知識和元認知反應。

       

      心理學 Essay怎么寫

      Psychologists are interested in meta-cognition because it's the control of conscious cognitive activity. The new concept of mindfulness has led to the study of different aspects of metacognition. This is because there are shared commonalities between mindfulness and metacognition. Thus, metacognition is a concept that is demonstrated in daily activities. According to Karwowski, Czerwonka, and Kaufman (2018), metacognition has two major clusters of activities which include monitoring the levels of cognition knowledge. Thus, metacognitive knowledge is a person's understanding of the existing cognitive processes. In contrast, metacognitive regulation is manifested during the problem-solving process when a person can regulate the cognitive process.

      According to ?zsoy, Memi?, and Temur (2017), the two elements of metacognition are related by the have distinct characteristics. First, knowledge about cognition is fallible, stable and develops late. In contrast, cognitive regulation is independent of age and unstable. Another reason why psychologists are interested in metacognition is that meta-cognition is used in psychotherapies. Such therapies are referred to as metacognitive therapies (MCT). Other types of psychotherapies focus on thought content whereas MCT is interested in the thought process. For a metacognitive therapist, a person's thinking and behavior control are more important compared to what the person is thinking about. In MCT, the general intention is to mechanisms responsible for the development and maintenance of psychological disorders. These mechanisms include metacognitive attention, believes and the control of thoughts.

      根據?zsoy、Memi?和Temur(2017),這兩個元認知元素之間的聯系具有鮮明的特征。首先,關于認知的知識是容易出錯的、穩定的、發展較晚的。相反,認知調節是獨立于年齡和不穩定的。心理學家對元認知感興趣的另一個原因是元認知被用于心理治療。這種療法被稱為元認知療法(MCT)。其他類型的心理療法關注的是思維內容,而MCT關注的是思維過程。對于元認知治療師來說,一個人的思維和行為控制比這個人在想什么更重要。在MCT中,一般的目的是研究心理障礙的發展和維持機制。這些機制包括元認知注意、信念和思想控制。

      Metacognition is also a relevant psychological topic in the field of education. According to Desoete (2017), metacognition is used in almost all problem-solving situations. However, Meijer et al (2013) have revealed the use of metacognitive tests in learning. The AILI questionnaire is meant to improve the learning outcomes of the students by targeting their metacognitive skills. One area of interest for metacognitive tests is to teach students how to regulate and control their comprehension of information when reading. Desoete (2017) confirmed this intervention by improving the student's metacognitive skills by using tutor feedback and reflection prompts.

      The researchers provided an overview of the previous literature to provide readers with a clear background of AILI. This exposed the previous tests developed to test the metacognitive abilities of students. This includes the MSLQ and MAI. Also, the researcher's distinguished between the two tests and the AILI. From a psychological perspective, good research acknowledges similar works of other researchers. Meijer et al (2013) also provided a research justification which indicates why the AILI questionnaire should be conducted. The AILI questionnaire can capture metacognitive responsiveness which is not tested by MSLQ and MAI.

      研究者提供了先前文獻的概述,為讀者提供一個清晰的背景。這暴露了之前為測試學生的元認知能力而開發的測試。這包括MSLQ和MAI。同時,研究人員區分了這兩個測試和AILI。從心理學的角度來看,好的研究肯定了其他研究人員的類似工作。Meijer et al(2013)也提供了一個研究論證,說明為什么應該進行AILI問卷調查。AILI問卷可以捕捉到未被MSLQ和MAI測試的元認知反應。

      This satisfies the aim of psychological research which is to add new knowledge to the existing psychological knowledge.

      The AILI questionnaire considered conceptualization of metacognition, avoiding intertwinement between metacognitive and cognitive questions and viewing metacognition from the perspective of a trait. The researchers used facet design to develop the AILI questionnaire. Generally, facet design is used by psychologists to coordinate theory and research. Validity and reliability tests are of paramount importance when developing a psychological test. This determines the generalization of the study findings to the general population. Through the use of generalizability theory, the results were deemed valid and reliable. The sample used for the research was representative of the general population having both male and female respondents who were undertaking different learning courses and from different countries.

      The sample selection met the criteria for psychological research. Also, there was a uniform administration of the AILI questionnaire with no bias. The use of decision study and generalizability put the AILI questionnaire within the scope of psychology. This is because the two analysis methods are commonly used in psychology research. Moreover, the researchers used the test-retest method to confirm the reliability of the study. This is a common test used by psychologists to establish study reliability, especially when developing new tests or confirming the outcomes of a theory. The test-retest method was used to test correlations that were obtained from a given number of students in their first year of study.

      The results from both the decision study and the generalizability study indicate that the AILI test can be used in different populations. Therefore, these results are psychological. First, the researchers used a psychological method to arrive at the results. The metacognitive responsiveness was 0.25. This suggested that students who were reporting on metacognitive responsiveness were dependent on the study context. Secondly, the study established correlations while using the AILI questionnaire. In psychology, correlation studies are conducted to establish a relationship between two or more variables. These correlations were used by the researchers to arrive at the results. For example, the researchers used correlation to establish the relationship between AILI and MALQ factors. The obtained correlation scores indicate that the MSLQ scale corresponds to the AILI components like performance and learning. These results are similar to other metacognition studies which indicate that AILI tests like MAI and MSLQ questionnaires can test learning-related metacognition.

      決策研究和泛化研究的結果表明,AILI檢驗可用于不同的群體。因此,這些結果是心理上的。首先,研究人員使用心理學方法得出了結果。元認知反應性為0.25。這表明,報告元認知反應的學生依賴于研究環境。其次,本研究在使用AILI問卷時建立了相關性。在心理學中,相關研究是為了建立兩個或多個變量之間的關系。研究人員利用這些相關性得出了這些結果。例如,研究人員使用相關性來建立AILI和MALQ因素之間的關系。得到的相關分數表明,MSLQ量表對應于AILI的性能和學習等成分。這些結果與其他元認知研究相似,表明AILI測試,如MAI和MSLQ問卷可以測試學習相關的元認知。

      Other scholars are likely to view these results as irrelevant. A close look at the components of the AILI questionnaire reveal that the AILI tests metacognitive elements that were tested earlier by MAI and MSLQ questionnaires. Using AILI in educational contexts would be similar to using the MSLQ test. Also, there is no clear explanation of how the researchers avoided the intertwinement of metacognition and cognition. This reveals some gaps in the methodology. A good methodology in psychology should be followed by another researcher to arrive at the same results. However, the methodology used is confusing since it cannot be followed by another researcher due to a lack of a clear method for avoiding the intertwinement between metacognition and cognition.

      The article is psychological in nature considering the concept discussed and the methodology used to develop the questionnaire. Metacognition is a psychological concept which is usually applied in education psychology. Prior to the AILI questionnaire, other psychologists had developed MSLQ and MAI questionnaires that were responsible in measuring metacognitive knowledge and regulation. The researchers argue that AILI is able to test three factors which include metacognitive knowledge, parameters and responsiveness. The research findings are considered psychological because the researchers used generalizability test and decision study to examine the rationality in the AILI questionnaire. Also, there was a broad use of correlation to establish the relationship between AILI and MSLQ questionnaire. Correlation is an analysis method which is used in psychological research. Unfortunately, lack of a clear method to avoid intertwinement between cognition and metacognition challenges the reliability and generalizability of the research findings.

      考慮到所討論的概念和開發問卷所用的方法,這篇文章是心理學性質的。元認知是教育心理學中常用的一個心理學概念。在AILI問卷之前,其他心理學家已經開發了MSLQ和MAI問卷,用于測量元認知知識和調節。研究人員認為,AILI能夠測試三個因素,包括元認知知識、參數和反應。研究結果被認為是心理學的,因為研究者使用了概括性檢驗和決策研究來檢驗AILI問卷的合理性。在AILI與MSLQ問卷之間建立了廣泛的相關性。相關性是心理學研究中常用的一種分析方法。遺憾的是,由于缺乏明確的方法來避免認知和元認知的糾纏,研究結果的可靠性和泛化性受到了挑戰。

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