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      Business Assignment格式范文:Motivation Theories in Project Management

      論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-10-21 13:19:50 來源:www.ourpropertyvalue.com 作者:留學作業網

      Business Assignment格式范文-項目管理中的激勵理論,這是一篇留學生商務管理assignment寫作范文,在本作業中,作者將介紹其對一些激勵理論的看法,以及在項目模式下運行時如何應用或不應用這些理論。過去10年,銀行業仍然是阿爾巴尼亞最重要的經濟部門之一,也是增長最快的行業之一。 法國興業銀行阿爾巴尼亞公司(以前稱為Banka Popullore)于2004年4月1日開始活動。2007年4月18日,法國興業集團收購了該銀行75.01%的股份。該銀行總部設在地拉那,在阿爾巴尼亞各地設有41家分行。截至2009年底,該銀行有379名雇員,既有阿爾巴尼亞籍,也有法國籍。下面就一起來看一下這篇Business Assignment范文。

      Business Assignment寫作格式范文

      In this assignment I will present my views about some motivation theories and how they can be applied or not applied when running in a project mode
      Introduction 引言
      About Societe Generale Albania 關于阿爾巴尼亞興業銀行

      Banking sector continues to be one of the most important economic sectors and one of the most rapid growing businesses in Albania in the last 10 year.
      Societe Generale Albania, previously named Banka Popullore, started its activity on 1st of Mars 2004. In 18th of April 2007, Societe Generale Group acquired 75.01% of the shares of this bank. The bank has its head office in Tirana and is present allover Albania with 41 operation branches. At the end of 2009, the bank had 379 employees, both Albanian and French nationality.
      About the case study 關于案例研究
      Being on the most important economic sectors has created enough space for operation of 17 Banks in a relatively small market like Albania. With such a high competition it is very important that banks stay always in line with economic developments and react fast toward customer needs for new products or adaptation. Our bank is quite small and there are frequently high pressures for sharing resources in order to complete in time and with budget different operational or business initiatives. These needs has made mandatory for bank management to apply a matrix organizational design in our organization.
      作為最重要的經濟部門,在阿爾巴尼亞這樣一個相對較小的市場上,為17家銀行的運營創造了足夠的空間。在如此激烈的競爭中,銀行必須始終與經濟發展保持一致,并對客戶對新產品或適應的需求做出快速反應。我們的銀行規模相當小,為了及時完成不同的運營或業務計劃,經常存在共享資源的巨大壓力。這些需求使得銀行管理層必須在我們的組織中應用矩陣組織設計。
      Such organizational structure are quite complex when it comes to management and control of staff performance, as they bring the employee in front of two managers, the department manager and the project manager. Now day’s project management is becoming a key component of the success for eveyr organization in any sector and such the motivation of employees working in projects is of a great interest for both the project manager, as the main beneficiary, and the organization. There a lot of researches and studies for motivation in standard organizational structure, but the topic is considered as less explored when it comes to project management (Dwivedula and Bredillet, 2009).
      在管理和控制員工績效方面,這種組織結構相當復雜,因為他們將員工帶到兩個經理面前,即部門經理和項目經理?,F在,day的項目管理正成為eveyr組織在任何部門取得成功的關鍵組成部分,因此,員工在項目中工作的積極性對作為主要受益人的項目經理和組織都非常重要。關于標準組織結構中的激勵,有很多研究和研究,但在項目管理方面,這一主題被認為是探索較少的。
      Theories of motivations 動機理論
      “Motivation is the driving force within individuals that compels them physiologically and psychologically to pursue one or more goals to fulfill their needs or expectations,” (Lam and Tang, 2003, p. 61).
      “動機是個人內在的驅動力,迫使他們在生理和心理上追求一個或多個目標,以滿足他們的需求或期望”)。
      Why do managers need motivation? If we agree that an output of motivation is control, than we may say that a manager needs motivation to make people do the things he wants and stop doing the things
      為什么管理者需要激勵?如果我們同意激勵的輸出是控制,那么我們可以說管理者需要激勵,讓人們做他想要的事情,停止做他想做的事情
      There are currently a lot of theories to explain the nature of motivation and help mangers on addressing it according to their needs. These theories do not conflict between them, which means the manager can use any of them or even combine them. In my assignments I will be focused in 2 theories; “The hierarchy of needs” as the most first one and most well known by all kind of managers and “The dual-structure theory” since it was developed based on a research on engineers and accounts, which is about the same environment and employee nature as in my bank.
      目前有許多理論可以解釋動機的本質,并幫助管理者根據他們的需要解決動機問題。這些理論之間沒有沖突,這意味著管理者可以使用其中任何一種理論,甚至可以將它們結合起來。在我的作業中,我將專注于兩個理論;“需求層次”是所有類型的管理者最早、最為人熟知的“二元結構理論”,因為它是基于對工程師和賬戶的研究而開發的,與我所在銀行的環境和員工性質大致相同。
      The Hierarchy of Needs 需求層次
      This is one of the most well know need theories of motivation and was developed by Abraham Maslow in 1940. According to this theory the needs are organized in 5 main groups of needs that stay together in the form of a pyramid (Maslow, 1943):
      這是最廣為人知的動機需求理論之一,由亞伯拉罕·馬斯洛于1940年提出。根據這一理論,需求被組織為5個主要需求組,它們以金字塔的形式聚集在一起:
      Physiological Needs; they stay in the bottom of the pyramid and include the basic needs of every human been such as: the need for food, drink, education, medical care, etc. Every organization can provide these needs by providing good working condition and a salary to their employees.
      生理需求;他們處于金字塔的底部,包括每個人的基本需求,如:食物、飲料、教育、醫療等。每個組織都可以通過向員工提供良好的工作條件和工資來滿足這些需求。
      Security Needs; includes the need for feeling safe and secure, having a secure job, having a home and a future. The organization can satisfy these needs by offering job continuity, health and retirement plans.
      安全需要;包括需要感到安全和有保障,有一份安全的工作,有一個家和一個未來。本組織可以通過提供工作連續性、健康和退休計劃來滿足這些需求。
      Belongingness Needs; includes the needs of humans to love and be loved, to be accepted by others, to take and give friendship. Most of this needs get satisfied by the family ties, but this is not enough since we spend a considerable time of our life in our works. Managers and direct supervisors can play a significant role to satisfy these needs by encouraging the work in group, enhance their communication with employees and provided basis for social interaction between employees.
      歸屬感和需求;包括人類需要愛和被愛,被他人接受,接受和給予友誼。大多數需要通過家庭關系得到滿足,但這是不夠的,因為我們在工作中花費了大量的時間。管理者和直接主管可以通過鼓勵團隊工作,加強與員工的溝通,為員工之間的社會互動提供基礎,在滿足這些需求方面發揮重要作用。
      Esteem Needs; the needs of this group in be divided into two major needs, the need for self respect and the need for being respected by others. The organizations and managers can satisfy this by job title, awards, recognition of merits, benefits etc.
      尊重需要;這一群體的需求可以分為兩大需求,即自尊和被他人尊重的需求。組織和管理人員可以通過職位、獎勵、對優點的認可、福利等來滿足這一要求。       
      Self-Actualization Needs; is the highest level of the hierarchy and includes the need we have to be the one we want to be in order to be self fulfilled. If all the other levels of the hierarchy are fully satisfied, it does not remain a lot for the managers to do to satisfy this need, all they need to take care off is make sure the individual has a challenging job and that other needs in lower level become deficient.
      自我實現需要;是層次結構的最高層次,包括我們必須成為我們想要成為的人,才能自我實現。如果層次結構的所有其他層次都得到了充分滿足,那么管理者就不需要做太多的工作來滿足這一需求,他們所需要關心的就是確保個人有一份具有挑戰性的工作,而較低層次的其他需求變得不足。
      According to the theory the needs of each level should be satisfied before going to the next level until we reach the self-actualization needs, however if during our road to the top of hierarchy, a lower level of need become deficient again the individual returns to that level (Moorhead and Griffin, 1995).
      根據該理論,在進入下一個層次之前,每個層次的需求都應該得到滿足,直到我們達到自我實現的需求,然而,如果在我們通往層次頂端的道路上,較低層次的需求再次變得不足,則個人返回到該層次。
      Despite the fact that the theory is well recognized among many organization and managers due to the intuitive logic and easy understanding, the theory is not fully validated either by Maslow or any other research, in contrary many deficiencies have been identified (Wahba and Bridwell, 1976)
      盡管由于直觀的邏輯和易于理解,該理論在許多組織和管理者中得到了廣泛認可,但馬斯洛或任何其他研究都沒有充分驗證該理論,相反,已經發現了許多缺陷       
      It is important to mention that the most basic needs are provided by the top management of an organization and more we go up in the hierarchy of needs more we go down in the level of management responsible to satisfy these needs and turn them in motivator for improving job performance.
      值得一提的是,最基本的需求是由組織的最高管理層提供的,我們在需求層次中越高,我們在負責滿足這些需求的管理層中越低,并將其轉化為提高工作績效的激勵因素。
      The Dual-Structure Theory 二元結構理論
      The theory was developed by Herzberg on late 1950s based on a research with a couple of hundred engineers and accounts (Herzberg, 1968). The finding of this research proved that different set of factors were connected with different feelings about work. The motivation of an employee goes in a two step process, first satisfying the employee (eliminate any factor which may bring dissatisfaction) by hygiene factors and second go with motivation factors. The motivation factors would result at the end with satisfied and motivated employees who can have a long term and positive job performance. The combination of these factors can set employee in four situations (Herzberg, 1987):
      該理論是由Herzberg在20世紀50年代后期基于數百名工程師和客戶的研究而發展起來的。這項研究的發現證明,不同的因素與不同的工作感受有關。員工的激勵分為兩步,第一步是通過衛生因素滿足員工(消除任何可能帶來不滿的因素),第二步是激勵因素。激勵因素最終會產生滿意和積極的員工,他們能夠長期積極地工作。這些因素的組合可以將員工設置為四種情況:
      Satisfied and motivated employee. The target situation for having the best performance.
      滿意和積極的員工。具有最佳性能的目標情況。
      Satisfied but not motivated. The manager should find the way to apply motivation factors and change the status; otherwise the de-motivated employee will bring low productivity and bad quality.
      滿意但沒有動力。管理者應找到應用激勵因素的方法并改變現狀;否則,缺乏積極性的員工將帶來低生產率和低質量。       
      Not satisfied but motivated. The company should change its policies and rules and try to change the situation. An employee is not expected to stay to long in this status.
      不滿足,但有動力。公司應改變其政策和規則,并努力改變這種情況。員工不希望在此狀態下停留太久。
      Not satisfied and not motivated. The worst situation, both company and managers have a lot to do. These employees will bring to the business apart from the low productivity and bad quality a lot of complains, strikes, no communication.
      不滿意,沒有動力。最糟糕的情況是,公司和管理者都有很多事情要做。這些員工除了工作效率低和質量差之外,還會帶來很多抱怨、罷工和溝通。
      The hygiene factors, when they exist are in placed by the company strategy and/or governments rules and they are not directly related to the performance and ability of anybody. In opposite with them, the employee can get the motivation factors only by his involvement and his work. (McCrimmon, 2008).
      衛生因素(如果存在)由公司戰略和/或政府規定,與任何人的績效和能力沒有直接關系。相反,員工只有通過參與和工作才能獲得激勵因素。
      The theory has been analyzed more than any other theory in the field of organizational behavior (Pinder, 1998) and the results are quite contradictory. Studies and researchers which use the same method support the theory, other ones criticize it for the research population used, which is limited only to accountants and engineers, for not taking into account the individual differences, since a motivation factor can depend individual age and/or organizational model (House and Wigdor, 1967).
      該理論在組織行為領域的分析比任何其他理論都多,結果相當矛盾。使用相同方法的研究和研究人員支持該理論,其他人則批評該理論的研究人群僅限于會計師和工程師,因為沒有考慮個體差異,因為動機因素可能取決于個體年齡和/或組織模式。
      Herzberg’s theory states that money does not motivate employees but only satisfies them (Herzberg, 1968), due to this statement the theory is widely discussed and analyzed in studies and researches about the rewarding and motivation (Beel, 2007).The rewords supporters are totally against it and they say it does not have evidences to prove that money is not a motivation. Another aspect of critics is the fact that the theory does not take in consideration the circumstances, what does motivate an employee today, not necessary satisfy and motivate another one tomorrow (Robbins, 2005).
      Herzberg的理論指出,金錢不能激勵員工,但只能滿足他們,由于這一說法,該理論在關于獎勵和激勵的研究中得到了廣泛討論和分析。rewords的支持者完全反對它,他們說它沒有證據證明金錢不是動機。批評者的另一個方面是,該理論沒有考慮到環境,即今天激勵員工的因素,而不是明天滿足和激勵員工的必要因素。
      Visual presentation of the dual structure theory 二元結構理論的可視化演示
      Motivation in Project management 項目管理中的激勵
      PRINCE2 manual defines a project as:  PRINCE2手冊將項目定義為:
      “a management environment that is created for the purpose of delivering one or more business products according to a specified business case.”
      “為根據特定業務案例交付一個或多個業務產品而創建的管理環境?!?br/>Another definition is: 另一個定義是
      “a temporary organisation that is needed to produce a unique and pre-define outcome or result at a pre-specified time using pre-determined resources”.
      “一個臨時組織,需要使用預先確定的資源,在預先指定的時間產生獨特和預先定義的結果或結果”。
      Being a temporary organization and with specific targets, the project organization is a more complex structure than a normal organization unit and different rules and practices are applied in every aspect of organizational behavior, including motivation.
      項目組織是一個臨時組織,具有特定的目標,是一個比正常組織單位更復雜的結構,不同的規則和實踐應用于組織行為的各個方面,包括動機。
      In 2008, our bank started a project for migration of existing core banking system into a new and modern one as part of the group strategy for mutualization of IT services. The project team was composed by more than twenty employees coming from different departments and sectors, covering many different positions such as; translators, business analysts, IT developers, organization and even a public relationship specialist. We knew since the beginning that such a challenging and multidimensional project could not succeed without a motivated team.
      Why do we need motivated staff? Is motivation the only factor for having a good performance?
      2008年,我行啟動了一個將現有核心銀行系統遷移到新的現代銀行系統的項目,作為集團IT服務共同化戰略的一部分。項目團隊由來自不同部門和部門的20多名員工組成,涵蓋許多不同職位,如:;翻譯、業務分析師、IT開發人員、組織甚至公共關系專家。我們從一開始就知道,如果沒有一個積極的團隊,這樣一個具有挑戰性和多層面的項目就不可能成功。             
      為什么我們需要有動力的員工?動機是取得良好業績的唯一因素嗎?       
      Conclusion 結論
      Projects by definition are a temporary organization, this automatically excludes some motivation techniques which become irrelevant due to the time required to give their effects. What should we do? Should we leave motivation only to be applied in standard organizational structure?
      Business Assignment范文根據定義,項目是一個臨時組織,這自動排除了一些激勵技術,這些技術由于產生效果所需的時間而變得無關緊要。我們該怎么辦?我們是否應該讓激勵只適用于標準的組織結構?本站提供各國各專業Assignment寫作指導服務,如有需要可咨詢本平臺。


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