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      Research Proposal格式范文:Optimisation and Retention of an Organisations Staff

      論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-08-18 10:54:25 來源:www.ourpropertyvalue.com 作者:留學作業網

      Research Proposal格式范文-優化和留住組織員工。本文是一篇留學生論文proposal寫作范文,主要內容是介紹了作者對上述主題的研究。作者將研究人力資源經理如何優化組織,以及航空公司的員工流動率通常對機組人員來說很高,員工保留一直是許多不同業務性質的公司中出現的問題,有時不僅僅是工資造成了這樣的問題?;旧?,作者將提案分為三個不同的部分,以便于理解和組織。下面就一起來參考下這篇留學生論文Research  proposal范文的全部內容。

      Research Proposal格式范文

      This proposal presents my research on the above topic. We will look into how HR managers can optimize a organization and also the turnover rate of the employment in the airline is generally high for cabin crews and staff retention is always a issue that arise in many companies in different nature of business and sometimes it is not only the wages that created such problem. Basically, I have structured the proposal into three different sections, for easier understanding and be organised.
      Firstly, in the Literature Review section, it will explain on the theory of optimization of the organisation and staff retention, which includes memorable quotation, diagrams and striking examples.
      首先,在文獻綜述部分,將解釋組織優化和員工保留的理論,包括難忘的引用、圖表和顯著的例子。
      Secondly, in the Research methodology section, it will focus on type and nature of the research, description study, the choice of research instrument and the research limitations will be included.
      其次,在研究方法部分,將重點介紹研究的類型和性質、描述研究、研究工具的選擇以及研究局限性。
      Thirdly, in the Presentation and Discussion section, it will analyse the data that is gathered earlier and present my analysis result by showing the relationship with observed facts and also the key problems that Singapore airline faces.
      其次,在陳述和討論部分,將分析先前收集的數據,并通過顯示與觀察事實的關系以及新加坡航空公司面臨的關鍵問題來展示我的分析結果。
      LITERATURE REVIEW 文獻綜述
      It presents a summary of the academic literature on my chosen topic and serves to inform my research. It also develops my knowledge of chosen topic and helps me understand the organisation and topic better.
      本文總結了關于我所選主題的學術文獻,為我的研究提供信息。它還發展了我對所選主題的知識,幫助我更好地理解組織和主題。
      Optimization 優化
      Premji (2006) define Optimization “As the utilizing of organization resources well, at high efficiency and enables the organization to achieve the desired end results”. This can be define as achieving or getting the full use of utilization efficiency and the effectiveness.
      Premji將優化定義為“充分、高效地利用組織資源,使組織能夠實現預期的最終結果”。這可以定義為實現或充分利用利用利用效率和有效性。
      Above is the diagram which shows the relationship of the efficiency, utilization and effectiveness as mention earlier. From the diagram, we can understand that the change of any one of the factor the other factor may be changes as well. This means that for us to understand the performance of the organisation , we must have views in different aspects as all the factors are linked. For example, if utilization is very low, then both efficiency and effectiveness will not achieve any results therefore there will be no benefits that can be obtained from it.
      上圖顯示了前面提到的效率、利用率和有效性之間的關系。從圖中我們可以理解,任何一個因素的變化,另一個因素也可能發生變化。這意味著,為了了解組織的績效,我們必須在不同方面有自己的觀點,因為所有因素都是相互聯系的。例如,如果利用率很低,那么效率和有效性都無法實現任何結果,因此無法從中獲得任何好處。
      Very often, if the organization goals for the result is being achieved, it will tend to overlook the importance of the other factors. Organization should not overlook the factors so as to better prepare themselves to achieve the future results.
      在很多情況下,如果實現了組織的目標,就會忽視其他因素的重要性。組織不應忽視這些因素,以便更好地為實現未來結果做好準備。
      Efficiency 效率
      According to Premji (2006), Efficiency is defined as “how well are you using what you are using.” It is also known as the ratio of output and input.
      根據Premj,效率的定義是“你使用的東西使用得有多好”它也稱為輸出和輸入之比。
      This diagram shows the process of the input which resulted in output at the end of it. Usually in an organization, employee can be classified into three main groups:
      此圖顯示了導致輸出的輸入過程。通常在組織中,員工可以分為三大類:
      Output oriented people 產出導向型人才
      Input oriented people 投入導向型人才
      Efficiency oriented people 注重效率的人
      Output Oriented People 產出導向型人才
      Output oriented people are people who try all ways or anything that allows them to get the end results that they desired. These people try to get the most out of the output and using any ways they can to the input and process. It is necessary to understand that the output is actually different from the end results. Therefore, with maximize output does not necessary achieve good results. Generally the output oriented people will use more than what the cost should be to obtain a good result, however they will not notice it. As HR manager, he/she have to ensure that the organisation resources are fully utilized and should try not to employ output oriented people or creating such people in the organization.
      以產出為導向的人是那些想盡一切辦法或任何事情來獲得他們想要的最終結果的人。這些人試圖最大限度地利用輸出,并盡可能地利用輸入和處理。有必要了解輸出實際上與最終結果不同。因此,用最大化產出并不一定能取得好的效果。一般來說,以產出為導向的人會使用比成本更多的東西來獲得好的結果,但他們不會注意到這一點。作為人力資源經理,他/她必須確保組織資源得到充分利用,并應盡量不雇用以產出為導向的人或在組織中創造這樣的人。
      Input Oriented People 投入導向型人才
      Input oriented people are known as workaholics. They generally focus on the input and the efforts, they believe by creating more input it will lead to a good output. Success to them are enjoying their work and work as hard as they could to achieve the desire output. As HR manager, he / she should recruit a fair percentage of these people, as they are able to perform the instructions given to them due to their working attitude.
      以投入為導向的人被稱為工作狂。他們通常專注于投入和努力,他們相信通過創造更多的投入會產生良好的產出。對他們來說,成功就是享受他們的工作,并盡可能努力地工作,以實現愿望的輸出。作為人力資源經理,他/她應該在這些人中招聘相當比例的人,因為他們的工作態度使他們能夠執行指示。
      Efficiency Oriented People 注重效率的人才
      Efficiency oriented people are people who believe in a return after the investment. Generally, they focus in make full use of the efficiency either to obtain a high output for a certain amount of input given or less to achieve a equivalent of output. As HR manager, who ensures that organization resources are being utilized, should try to hire and groom a larger percentage of efficiency-oriented employee in the organization. With the combination of input-oriented and efficiency oriented people, the organization performance is achievable.
      效率導向的人是相信投資后會有回報的人。一般來說,他們關注的是充分利用效率,要么為給定的一定量的輸入獲得高輸出,要么為實現相當于輸出的低輸出。作為確保組織資源得到利用的人力資源經理,應該努力在組織中雇傭和培養更大比例的以效率為導向的員工。通過投入導向和效率導向的人的結合,組織績效是可以實現的。
      Utilization 利用
      Premji (2006) will define Utilization as the measure of “how much are you using out of what you have.” This means that one should put in whatever you have and not to miss out any opportunities.
      Premji將利用率定義為“你使用了多少你所擁有的”這意味著一個人應該投入你所擁有的一切,不要錯過任何機會。
      Utilization and Efficiency are closely linked and aid each other. For example in a case whereby there is a need for a reduction of input, and due to the increased in effieciency, the ‘extra’ input can be used in somewhere else, due to utilization. The relationship between Utilization and Efficiency can affect an organisation performance. If organisations focus on Efficiency orientation without utilization focus, it will lead to apply efforts that give good returns. On the other hand, if organisations maintain Utilization focus without Efficiency orientation, will lead to using all available resources, without achieving adequate returns.
      利用率和效率密切相關,相互幫助。例如,在需要減少輸入的情況下,由于效率的提高,由于利用率的原因,“額外”輸入可以用于其他地方。利用率和效率之間的關系會影響組織績效。如果組織關注效率導向,而不關注利用率,則會導致付出帶來良好回報的努力。另一方面,如果組織在沒有效率導向的情況下保持利用重點,將導致使用所有可用資源,而沒有實現足夠的回報。
      Effectiveness 有效性
      An organization’s capability to achieve the wanted end result is known as Effectiveness. This may be related to profits, expansion, customer satisfaction, branding and many more. In an organisation, teams often set a results as their goals.
      (Premji, 2006)
      組織實現預期最終結果的能力稱為有效性。這可能與利潤、擴張、客戶滿意度、品牌等有關。在一個組織中,團隊通常將結果作為他們的目標。
      From the above diagram, visualizing the three factors that work on different purposes:  從上圖中,可以看到三個不同用途的因素:
      Utilization deal with resources and efforts 利用涉及資源和工作
      Efficiency concerned with quantity and quality output 與產量和質量有關的效率
      Effectiveness is all about desired results 有效性就是期望的結果
      Utilization and Efficiency are the internal aspects of an organization, Effectiveness brings in the customers view and gives an external aspect to the Optimization. Effectiveness is related to the what the organization wants to achieve. For example, if organization’s aspirations are low, end results can be easily be achieved, therefore effectiveness can be high.
      利用率和效率是組織的內部方面,有效性引入了客戶的觀點,并為優化提供了外部方面。有效性與組織想要實現的目標有關。例如,如果組織的期望值較低,則很容易實現最終結果,因此效率較高。
      Premji (2006:9) mention that “Effectiveness in an organization is all about “knitting together” the individual components with the strategy to achieve the end result.” But there are two important criteria to be considered:
      Premji提到“組織中的有效性是將各個組成部分與實現最終結果的戰略“編織在一起”但需要考慮兩個重要標準:
      Individual components must be good. 單個部件必須良好
      Components must be knitted well together.組件必須很好地編織在一起。
      Coverage of Effectiveness 有效性覆蓋率
      Efficiency 效率
      UtilizationWith higher effectiveness, it does not only helps to achieve the expected results but also reduce the required output from carious processes, to achieve the same expected end results.
      利用效率更高,它不僅有助于實現預期結果,而且還減少了腐蝕過程所需的輸出,以實現相同的預期最終結果。
      On another hand, Hayes (2010) view effectiveness from a different aspect, he defined it as:  另一方面,Hayes從另一個角度看待有效性,他將其定義為:
      Purpose: Profits are usually used to measure the organization effectiveness but not to all the organisation. For instance the government hospital, the effectiveness of hospitals will be on the waiting time and services provided and not the profits out of it. Hence, as manger, is required to identify the main performance indicators that reflect the purpose of the organization.
      目的:利潤通常用于衡量組織的有效性,但不適用于所有組織。例如政府醫院,醫院的有效性將取決于等待時間和提供的服務,而不是從中獲得的利潤。因此,作為經理,需要確定反映組織宗旨的主要績效指標。
      Stakeholder perspective: Different stakeholder uses different indicators to judge an organization’s effectiveness. From their point of views, profits may be their main concern or rather the most important factor, but from the wider community of view, such as customer, employee and supplier, they are affected by products and services produced. Every individual have different views. The failure to manage the organization key stakeholders perception, it may threaten the organization .
      利益相關者視角:不同的利益相關者使用不同的指標來判斷組織的有效性。從他們的角度來看,利潤可能是他們主要關心的問題,或者說是最重要的因素,但從更廣泛的社區(如客戶、員工和供應商)來看,他們受到生產的產品和服務的影響。每個人都有不同的觀點。未能管理組織關鍵利益相關者的感知,可能會威脅到組織。
      Level of assessment: By only focusing on the overall performance may resulted in inefficiencies being detected. Effectiveness can be assessed at different levels, such as the organization level, department level and individual.
      評估級別:只關注整體績效可能會導致效率低下。有效性可以在不同級別進行評估,例如組織級別、部門級別和個人級別。
      Alignment: Assessment of effectiveness need to be associated across the organization.
      一致性:有效性評估需要在整個組織中進行關聯。
      At this point, it will be good to differentiate between effectiveness and efficiency, for better understanding all the factors, Carnall (2003) defines efficiency as achieving stated goals within given resources constraints. And the definition of effectiveness includes the good use of resources to achieve goals but also the need to adapt to changing in order to remain efficiency .
      在這一點上,最好區分有效性和效率,為了更好地理解所有因素,Carnall將效率定義為在給定的資源限制內實現既定目標。有效性的定義包括良好使用資源以實現目標,還包括需要適應變化以保持效率。
      Optimized Organization 組織優化
      Peter F. Drucker (1993) defines business as: “Business is a process which converts a resource, distinct knowledge into a contribution of economic value in the market place.” As mention earlier on, Optimization is high Utilization, high Efficiency and high Effectiveness.
      彼得·德魯克(Peter F.Drucker)將商業定義為:“商業是一個將資源、獨特的知識轉化為市場上經濟價值貢獻的過程?!比缜八?,優化具有高利用率、高效率和高效性。
      Staff retention 員工保留
      Jennifer A Carsen (2005) defines retention as “how many of your current employees stick around over a given period of time”. However, retention may not always be a good thing for the organization this is so as retention may include poor performers, unhappy staff who may have been stuck in the job due to finances. Retention is all about retaining the good staff in the organisation. Retention may also weeding out of poor performers and keeping space for the better ones.
      Jennifer A Carsen將保留定義為“在給定的時間段內,您當前的員工中有多少人留下來”。然而,保留對組織來說可能并不總是一件好事,因為保留可能包括表現不佳、不開心的員工,他們可能因為財務原因而被困在工作崗位上。留住員工就是留住組織中的優秀員工。保留也可能會淘汰表現不佳的員工,并為表現較好的員工保留空間。
      Workplace diversity 工作場所多樣化
      Jennifer A Carsen (2005) , As the workforce continues to diversify, organisation must take equal employment opportunity so as to stay competitive. Organisation should not only employ staff of different race, culture, gender, age, sex but also to understand the ways that they can respect the staff values, expectations and capabilities. According to Jennifer A Carsen (2005) there are five reasons why the staff choose to leave the organisation:
      隨著勞動力繼續多樣化,組織必須抓住平等的就業機會,以保持競爭力。組織不僅應雇傭不同種族、文化、性別、年齡、性別的員工,還應了解如何尊重員工的價值觀、期望和能力。員工選擇離開組織有五個原因:
      Staff are given no compelling reasons to stay: They do not feel a sense of belonging towards the organisation that they are in.
      員工沒有令人信服的理由留下來:他們對自己所在的組織沒有歸屬感。
      Career limiting stereotypes: Some staff may feel that they are incompetent or not qualified , they feel the pressure of proving their competencies even when they have good performance in their job scope this therefore limit their career path as whatever they do do not seem to be the best to the organisation and they feel that it is hard for them to move forward.
      限制職業發展的陳規定型觀念:一些員工可能覺得自己不稱職或不合格,他們感到證明自己能力的壓力,即使他們在工作范圍內表現良好,這因此限制了他們的職業道路,因為無論他們做什么,對組織來說似乎都不是最好的,他們覺得很難前進。
      Poor supervision: Many superiors do not know how to handle their staff. The way superiors handle staff and solving problems do have a great impact to the staff too. For instance, if the staff felt that the superiors did not handle the problems fairly they may then choose to quit their job.
      監督不力:許多上級不知道如何處理員工。上級處理員工和解決問題的方式對員工也有很大影響。例如,如果員工覺得上級沒有公平地處理問題,他們可能會選擇辭職。
      Unclear and misaligned career path: Staff is unclear or unsure about their career path and when they do not know who in the organisation owns the career planning process.
      不明確和錯位的職業道路:員工不清楚或不確定自己的職業道路,不知道組織中誰負責職業規劃過程。
      “Safe” assignments, unclear goals: Staff were not given with challenging projects. They are also concern about the unclear or shifting jobs performance criteria.
      “安全”的任務,不明確的目標:員工沒有被賦予具有挑戰性的項目。他們還擔心工作表現標準不明確或變化。
      Instilling diversity principles 灌輸多樣性原則
      In order to achieve staff retention, the organisation should implement the principles provided by Jennifer A Carsen (2005).
      為了留住員工,組織應實施Jennifer A Carsen提出的原則。
      Obtain commitment at the top: This is to achieve responsibility to all the levels especially the management so as to bring the implementation a success.
      從最高層獲得承諾:這是為了實現各級特別是管理層的責任,從而使實施取得成功。
      Hold management accountable: Performance reviews and incentives award should be done by the management. Managers should treat all staff with respect and dignity.
      讓管理層負責:績效審查和獎勵應由管理層完成。管理者應尊重和尊重所有員工。
      Reward those who embody the workforce diversity principles: Do not reward those who have failed to carry out the principles. Reward should be done fairly.
      獎勵那些體現勞動力多樣性原則的人:不要獎勵那些未能執行這些原則的人。獎勵應該公平。
      Encourage employee participation: With the management alone to carry out the principles is not enough. Organisation should also encourage their staff to voice out and also allow them to play a part in implementing the principles.
      鼓勵員工參與:僅憑管理層的原則是不夠的。組織還應鼓勵員工發表意見,并允許他們在實施原則中發揮作用。
      Research Methodology 研究方法
      A questionnaire (See appendix 1) is conducted for data collection. It involved around 100 cabin crews therefore the total collections of the questionnaire were 100 copies.
      進行問卷調查(見附錄1)以收集數據。約有100名乘務員參與了調查,因此調查問卷共收集了100份。
      Generally the questionnaires were conducted through a number of ways. Firstly, the questionnaires are distributed out through email or hard-copy to the cabin crews with the help of a friend who is also a cabin crew of SIA. Secondly, carrying out observation on the daily activities taking place in the airport whereby the cabin crews are always around there, and with a small discussion group (3-5 people). Lastly, arranging a short interview session with the various seniority of crews, these enhance the value of information that I have gathered as important information such as organization’s optimization, retention and the ways these crews work.
      問卷調查一般通過多種方式進行。首先,問卷通過電子郵件或硬拷貝分發給乘務員,并由一位朋友(他也是新航的乘務員)提供幫助。其次,觀察在機場發生的日?;顒?,乘務員總是在那里,并與一個小討論小組(3-5人)進行討論。最后,安排一次簡短的采訪,采訪不同資歷的工作人員,這提高了我收集的信息的價值,這些信息是重要信息,例如組織的優化、保留以及這些工作人員的工作方式。
      Description Study 研究描述
      Description Study act as a guide to the researchers in obtaining the data during the data collection :
      說明研究為研究人員在數據收集過程中獲取數據提供了指導:
      Contacting friend who for help, a covering letter with a summary of the study aim with a request of the interviewee requirement was send out via email.
      聯系朋友尋求幫助時,通過電子郵件發送了一封附信,其中附有研究目的摘要以及受訪者要求。
      Getting the interviewee detail with a follow up phone call in which the researchers should explain the aim with more information and answer to any queries.
      通過跟進電話獲得受訪者的詳細信息,研究人員應在電話中用更多信息解釋目標,并回答任何問題。
      Prepared for the Questionnaire and start sending it out through via email or hard-copy to all the interviewees who has responded .
      準備調查問卷,并開始通過電子郵件或硬拷貝發送給所有回答的受訪者。
      A letter of appreciation was send out to all the interviewees and follow up with the due date indicated.
      向所有受訪者發送了感謝信,并在指定的截止日期后跟進。
      Do a follow up action by contacting all the interviewees if it is necessary for more enquires. For instance, a incomplete questionnaire.
      如果有必要進行更多詢問,請聯系所有受訪者進行跟進。例如,一份不完整的調查問卷。
      Sending questionnaire one more time to the interviewee who have yet to respond.
      再次向尚未回復的受訪者發送問卷。
      Researcher shall make use of both personal and friendship circles when looking for participants who are either working at HR departments or those who have recruiting experience. The researcher would have to speak to the HR department , any of the representatives to see whether if they would like to participate or interested in the project as mentioned to them. With the contact details provided by the personal or friendship circles, the researcher may email or sent to the respondent to form a small group to observe the daily routine of their work or operation. With addition, a interview session will also be conducted with selected interviewees, mainly with people of different seniority, to enhance the value of the information which had been gathered through the questionnaire and the discussion group. The interview session is conducted based on 4 level of cabin crews within SIA, from flight stewardess, leading stewardess, chief stewardess and in-flight supervisor. In conclusion, the research sample includes 4 representatives from the cabin crew line.To maintain anonymity, personal details of the interviewees have not been mentioned.
      研究人員在尋找在人力資源部門工作或有招聘經驗的參與者時,應利用個人圈子和友誼圈子。研究人員必須與人力資源部、任何代表交談,以確定他們是否愿意參與或對他們提到的項目感興趣。通過個人或朋友圈提供的聯系方式,研究人員可以通過電子郵件或發送給被調查者,組成一個小組,觀察他們的日常工作或操作。此外,還將與選定的受訪者(主要是不同資歷的人)進行訪談,以提高通過問卷調查和討論小組收集的信息的價值。面試環節根據新航4個級別的機組人員進行,包括空姐、首席空姐、首席空姐和機上主管。綜上所述,研究樣本包括來自客艙機組的4名代表。為了保持匿名,未提及受訪者的個人詳細信息。
      Research Rational 研究合理性
      Questionnaire (See Appendix 1) was being selected for my research because it is very cost saving and efficient as compare to other approach of the data gathering. And also this approach allows the interviewees to complete the questionnaire during their free time and they may feel more comfortable to give the answer of what they really felt as this questionnaire is anonymity. Interviewees are required to complete a self administered questionnaire, with 75% questions based on a 5 point scale is used to measure the variables. The constructs are measured based on the multi-items scales (MIS) rather than single item scales (SIS), as MIS allows the answer to be more specific to be averaged out when combined.
      我之所以選擇調查問卷(見附錄1)進行研究,是因為和其他數據收集方法相比,它非常節省成本和高效。此外,這種方法還允許受訪者在空閑時間完成問卷調查,他們可能會更樂意回答他們真正的感受,因為這份問卷是匿名的。受訪者需要完成一份自填問卷,其中75%的問題基于5分量表來衡量變量。這些結構是基于多項目量表(MIS)而不是單項目量表(SIS)進行測量的,因為MIS允許在組合時對答案進行更具體的平均。
      According to Anderson and Narus (1990), to increase the response ratethe questionnaire should be send out twice. The interviewees will be given a due date of two wweks after the questionnaire had been send out. If no response was done after one week questionnaire will be send out for the second time.
      根據Anderson和Narus,為了提高回復率,問卷應該發送兩次。問卷發出后,受訪者將收到兩份WWEK的截止日期。如果一周后沒有收到回復,將再次發送調查問卷。
      Research Limitation 研究局限性
      The limitation of using questionnaire is expected as follows:  使用問卷的局限性預計如下:
      Slow Feedback: the interviewees do not respond or submit the questionnaire before the due date. Generally, take a longer time.
      反饋慢:受訪者沒有在截止日期前回復或提交問卷。一般來說,需要更長的時間。
      Below Expected Result: Send out to 100 cabin crews, expected to receive 90% – 100% but only received 50% responses.
      低于預期結果:發送給100名客艙乘務員,預計會收到90%-100%的回復,但只收到50%的回復。
      Incomplete Questionnaire Form Gathered: Some of the questionnaire is not completed especially under personal particular section and Question 4, about 40 % of the respondents leave it blank or place ” NIL”
      收集的問卷表不完整:部分問卷未填寫,尤其是在個人特定部分和問題4下,約40%的受訪者將其留空或填寫“無”
      Difficulty in Gathering Questionnaire result: Gathering of the results may be hard as the questionnaire are either send back via email or manually therefore a manual entry is require to sort or gather the data obtain.
      收集問卷結果的困難:收集結果可能很困難,因為問卷要么通過電子郵件發回,要么通過手動方式發送,因此需要手動輸入來排序或收集獲得的數據。
      Presentation and Discussion 演示和討論
      In this section, I will look into the optimization and also staff retention as mention in the previous sections. Both optimization and staff retention plays a important role to bring in the success of the organisation. William Bridges (1995) stated that “There is no generally agreed-upon way to inventory an organization’s culture nor is there any shortage of theorists and consultancies that have developed ways of mapping key elements from many different perspectives” The data which had been collected can assist the managers understand the certain barriers and how to improve in the organisation.
      在本節中,我將探討優化以及前幾節提到的員工保留。優化和留住員工對組織的成功起著重要作用。William Bridges指出,“沒有公認的方法來清點組織文化,也不缺乏從許多不同角度制定關鍵要素映射方法的理論家和咨詢公司?!笔占臄祿梢詭椭芾碚吡私饽承┱系K以及如何在組織中改進。
      Analysing Singapore Airline (SIA) 分析新加坡航空公司(SIA)
      Very often due to the complexity of the organization, most of the organization tends to forget about the importance of optimizing and staff retention. According to the report of my questionnaire, only about 30 percent of respondents indicated that they pay attention of optimizing and the staff retention as a ongoing basis. Majority of the respondents feels that the organisation only look into ways of optimizing and retain staff in the case when crisis happen. The questionnaire also shows that respondents view of staff retention as a general managerial tool (60 percent), for targeting major change initiatives (20 percent), as development opportunity (10 percent) and for building organizational strength (10 percent). Most importantly, optimizing a organisation and staff retention allows managers to gain knowledge into how employees view the organization to how they like the organisations.
      由于組織的復雜性,組織中的大多數人往往忘記了優化和留住員工的重要性。根據我的調查問卷報告,只有大約30%的受訪者表示他們關注優化和員工保留作為一個持續的基礎。大多數受訪者認為,該組織只考慮在危機發生時優化和留住員工的方法。調查問卷還顯示,受訪者將員工保留視為一種通用管理工具(60%)、針對重大變革舉措(20%)、發展機會(10%)和建立組織力量(10%)。最重要的是,優化組織和留住員工可以讓管理者了解員工對組織的看法以及他們對組織的看法。 
      Another reason why many organizations tend not to pay attention is that the organisation may not have a idea or knowledge of it. In the questionnaire, respondents were split over the question of management’s response of staff retention issue. With a result of majority (55 percent) felt that senior management tend to take changing issue seriously and the rest of the respondent (45 percent) state the reverse Managers may fear of changes is because they are worried that with changes the staff may raise a higher expectations and this may lead to work difference.
      許多組織傾向于不注意的另一個原因是,該組織可能對其沒有想法或知識。在問卷調查中,受訪者在管理層對員工留用問題的回應問題上出現分歧。由于大多數人(55%)認為高級管理層傾向于認真對待變化的問題,其余受訪者(45%)表示,逆向管理者可能害怕變化,因為他們擔心隨著變化,員工可能會提高期望,這可能會導致工作差異。
      Lastly, optimizing and staff retention is very important as it is the key to success or the organisation.
      最后,優化和留住員工非常重要,因為這是組織成功的關鍵。
      Assessing Singapore Airline ( SIA) alignment 評估新加坡航空公司(SIA)的一致性
      One of the key objective of optimizing and culture change is to test the degree of alignment. For instance if the organisation is not contributing to to high performance practices then there is a need for change to allow a closer alignment.
      優化和文化變革的關鍵目標之一是測試對齊程度。例如,如果組織沒有為高績效實踐做出貢獻,那么就需要進行更改,以實現更緊密的一致性。
      In general , alignment is usually difficult to achieve and the closing up of the alignment gap may become a problem towards high performance. The common obstacles to high performance evident in my questionnaire finding include:
      一般來說,對齊通常很難實現,對齊間隙的閉合可能成為實現高性能的問題。在我的問卷調查結果中,高績效的常見障礙包括:
      Lack of Share Values: The strategy is not clear and even when a strategy is set it is not being practised, unsuitable management pattern and the lack of openness to take in new changes.
      缺乏共享價值:戰略不明確,即使制定了戰略,也沒有付諸實施,管理模式不合適,缺乏接受新變化的開放性。
      Lack of Leadership: Did not take the need of the staff seriously , stopping the politics and conflict and did not address on the issue of workload.
      缺乏領導力:沒有認真對待員工的需求,停止政治和沖突,沒有解決工作量問題。             
      Lack of Mentorship: Do not have time to coach and develop the staff, shortage of skills, heavy workloads and high stress.
      缺乏指導:沒有時間指導和發展員工,缺乏技能,工作量大,壓力大。
      Inappropriate Systems: The rewards given is inappropriate, the meetings are poorly run and it beats the purpose of having one.
      不適當的制度:給予的獎勵不適當,會議運作不善,這違背了舉行會議的目的。
      Assessing Singapore Airline (SIA) performance 評估新加坡航空公司(SIA)的業績
      In order to achieve high performance it involves the Achieving high performance involves in a connection between employee and the organization. As we all know, employee wants to feel that they are being valued by the organisation by their good performance and to be fairly accessed. Managers can play a role by influencing on every individual performance by giving the need and support to assist the staff to do a good job, especially those with experienced.
      為了實現高績效,它涉及到實現高績效,涉及到員工和組織之間的聯系。眾所周知,員工希望通過良好的表現感受到組織對他們的重視,并希望被公平對待。管理者可以發揮作用,通過提供幫助員工做好工作的需要和支持來影響每個人的表現,尤其是那些有經驗的員工。
      Level of Accountability 責問級別
      Generally, the common problem that SIA face is when the the staff do not have a clear idea whether the work had been done to avoid overlapping. This in return cause a double work.
      通常,新航面臨的常見問題是,員工不清楚是否已完成工作,以避免重疊。這反過來會導致雙重工作。
      To ensure a correct level of accountability the staff will require to have a correct information to allow them to know what is being required. To ensure the increase of accountability of SIA, it will require looking into:
      為了確保正確的問責水平,員工需要有正確的信息,讓他們知道需要什么。為了確保增加SIA的責任,需要研究:
      Job explanation 工作說明
      Clarify everyday jobs 明確日常工作
      Manage Performance 管理性能
      Use progress reviews. 使用進度審查
      Impose sanctions if necessary 必要時實施制裁
      Rewards System 獎勵制度
      It is very important in conveying the organizational values: 這在傳達組織價值觀方面非常重要:
      Performance benchmark 性能基準
      Performance expectations 績效預期
      Rewards have two organizational objectives: 獎勵有兩個組織目標:
      To recognise past performance 認可過去的表現
      To motivate people to perform 激勵人們表現
      The most important factor is that the staff have to feel that the reward is being carried out fairly. Reasonable salary is the most basic to create a trust, as each individual do not want to feel that they are actually being underpaid.
      最重要的因素是,員工必須感到獎勵得到了公平的執行。合理的工資是建立信任的最基本條件,因為每個人都不想感到自己的薪酬實際上偏低。
      Conclusion 結論
      Through this research project, it allows me to find some useful data in which allows me to know what to do to retain a staff and also introduce to me the idea of optimizing the organisation and i realise the main concern is how to increase performance of the organization. In this research, staff retention is a key issue to performance success as it will optimize the organization to achieve higher operation, competence and success in return achieving a better or improving the performance of the organisation.
      通過這個研究項目,我找到了一些有用的數據,讓我知道如何留住員工,并向我介紹了優化組織的想法,我意識到主要關注的是如何提高組織的績效。在本研究中,員工保留是績效成功的關鍵問題,因為它將優化組織,以實現更高的運營、能力和成功,反過來實現更好或改善組織的績效。
      In conclusion, there is no two similar organisation which is the same and develop the same solution for staff retention and in optimizing the organisation to achieve the high performance and success, it is usually situational. There is many challengers and pressure from both internal and external environment, and so a constant change is always required to catch up with the changing environment. Organizations should look into how the business can be competitive to other organisation and should provide a learning experience to the staff and growth as well so as to create a greater staff engagement. When these staff obtain a higher ski , the chances of getting a higher performance is greater and easier.
      總之,沒有兩個類似的組織是相同的,并且為員工保留和優化組織以實現高績效和成功開發了相同的解決方案,這通常是情境性的。來自內部和外部環境的挑戰和壓力很多,因此總是需要不斷的變化來跟上不斷變化的環境。組織應研究業務如何與其他組織競爭,并應為員工提供學習體驗和成長,以創造更大的員工參與度。當這些工作人員獲得更高的滑雪時,獲得更高表現的機會更大、更容易。
      All organisation should be flexible. However the flexibility will depend on the organisation’s ability to digest the information and be decisive in the decision being made. Lastly, the road to success of the organisation will depend on the people willingness to adapt to the new changes and so it is important for the organisation to know exactly what is the need of their employee’s need.
      Research Proposal提出總結:所有組織都應該靈活。然而,靈活性將取決于組織消化信息的能力,以及在做出決策時的決定性。最后,組織的成功之路將取決于人們是否愿意適應新的變化,因此,組織必須準確了解員工的需求。本站提供留學生論文Research Proposal寫作指導服務,如有需要可咨詢本平臺。


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